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with 493, the Argentine Republic with 300, Portugal with 282, and Japan with 240. The number of these patents to every million of inhabitants is given as follows: Belgium, 923; Switzerland, 615; Norway, 321; Great Britain, 320; the United States, 296; France, 295; Austria, 224; Denmark, 202; Sweden, 179; Hungary, 160, and Germany, 112.

The International Union for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, for which an exhibit was made, includes among its members Germany, Great Britain, France, Belgium, Spain, Italy, and Japan. The United States is not a member of this organization. The figures of literary production in 1898 show Germany first with 23,279 works; then come France with 14,781; Russia, 11,548 (in 1895); Italy, 9,670; Great Britain, 7,516; Japan, 6,497 (1895); Austria, 5,000 (1896); the United States, 4,886; Holland, 2,984; Belgium, 2,272; Sweden, 1,555; Hungary, 1,407 (1895); Denmark, 1,092, and Norway, 534. The table of proportions of literary productions shows for Germany 351 works to each million inhabitants; France, 344; Sweden, 338; Belgium, 331; Italy, 309; Sweden, 300; Norway, 262; Great Britain, 175; Russia, 85; the United States, 81; Spain, 66. The figures of the periodical press, showing the number of periodicals to the million of inhabitants, place the United States at the head, while three small countries of Europe follow. The United States has, according to this table, 510 periodicals to every million of people; Sweden, 320; Belgium, 253; Holland, 15+; Germany, 161; France, 156; Great Britain, 113; Austria, 98; Chile, 88; Italy, 78; Russia, 77; Japan, 17; Egypt, 11.


Beside its economic exhibit, the New York League for Social Seryice also exhibited several cases of photographs, showing movements for social betterment which would usually be classified as purely philanthropic. Religious bodies are laying increasing emphasis upon practical measures for social improvement. The League for Social Service naturally set this feature to the front, its organization having a religious, though not at all sectarian, complexion. Its photographs pictured the large variety of work done by the so-called “institutional churches," of which Grace Church, St. George's, St. Bartholomew's, the Church of the Ascension, and the Fifth Avenue Baptist Church, of New York; the Westminster Presbyterian Church and the Lincoln Park Baptist Church, of Chicago; and other churches in Topeka, Kans., and Jersey City, N. J., were particularly notable. The Salvation Army in America has imitated the good work done by the parent organization in England. Its “shelters,” hospitals, fresh-air camps, and other relief agencies were shown as they are in operation at Boston, New

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York, Chicago, Jersey City, Cripplecreek, Colo., San Francisco, and elsewhere, together with its colonies at Fort Amity, Colo., and Fort Romie, Cal. The social work of the Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Associations was also fully exemplified by the league, as well as the work which these religious bodies now devote to gymnasiums, general education, and industrial training. Their employment bureaus, their schools of domestic science, their classes in a great variety of trades and occupations--as in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Hartford, Detroit, Dayton, Buffalo, Cincinnati, and Portland, Oreg., for example--do excellent work in training workers and finding work for them. The railway department of the Young Men's Christian Association, as represented at New York and Philadelphia, for instance, specializes for a class of men needing peculiar attention; and the airbrake class” is but one example of the good sense with which the demand has been met. In the general field of social work done by churches or denominations another line of photographs represented numerous colleges or “universities," supported by religious bodies, in the South and West, such as Biddle, at Charlotte, N. C.; Fisk, at Nashville, Tenn.; Shaw, at Raleigh, N. C.; the St. Paul School, at Lawrenceville, Va.; and the Indian schools at Yankton and Pineridge, S. Dak. This activity might have been classed more logically, perhaps, with the educational department on the Champ de Mars, but the impression was made upon the visitor to this section that religion in America is taking on a distinctly humane and social character. Finally, the League for Social Service exhibited in another case its own work in the shape of programmes; pamphlets summarizing the social laws of seven States; its anti-Mormon series; its monthly periodical, first entitled Social Engineering, and now, in an enlarged form, Social Service; and various minor publications.

The French Musée Social, located on the Rue de Las Cases, near the Boulevard St. Germain, is one of the permanent exhibitions of Paris which the student of social questions should not fail to visit. It occupies the former mansion of its benefactor, the late Comte de Chambrun, which has been adapted to the uses of such a foundation by providing rooms for a library of some thousands of volumes, a small lecture hall, a reading room, and various rooms for documents, manuscripts, and other material. The conception of such a museum is excellent, though, if it were carried out in New York, for example, it should be adapted to American conditions.

One of the interesting exhibits in the Social Economy building was that of photographs and tables showing the work of reform and industrial schools in Great Britain. They are all under the control of the secretary for home affairs, and are inspected at least twice a year. The greater number are directed by voluntary committees of publicspirited persons, while some are due to county councils and school

boards. The reform schools take a young person less than 16 years of age who has committed some crime punishable by imprisonment. The industrial schools are preventive institutions for those under 14 years of age. Truant schools and day industrial schools are auxiliary. At the end of 1898, there were in Great Britain 47 reform schools, of which 35 were for boys and 12 for girls; and 142 industrial schools, of which 79 were for boys, 58 for girls, and 5 mixed. Of the 5,460 pupils in the reform schools, 800 could work and live outside. The total number to the date of the report was 19,310. From 1876 to 1898 the number sent to the reform schools has positively diminished each year, while the number sent to the industrial schools rapidly increased to 1893, and has been almost stationary since. There may be an indefinite detention in the reform school up to 19 years of age, and in the industrial school up to 16, with external supervision, later, up to 18. Each pupil in the reform schools costs on the average £21 ($102.20) a year. Two-thirds of this sum comes from the State, while £5 ($24.33) is levied on the municipal rates, and £2 ($9.73) is provided by parents or gifts. Each industrial-school pupil costs about £20 ($97.33) a year, the sum being divided thus: £9 10s. ($46.23) from the State, £9 ($13.80) from the rates, and £1 10s. ($7.30) from parents or gifts. From 1876 to 1898, the State contribution remained the same; the municipal contribution has increased and has practically replaced gifts; the total has varied little. The parents must pay something for the sake of the principle; many contribute, actually, only a shilling (24 cents) a week; in 1898, the parents' contribution amounted to £21,488 ($119,170.85).

The same system of education prevails in both kinds of schools. The effort is made to awaken an esprit de corps. The schools are not too large for the principal to know each pupil personally. A school is considered of good size which contains 150 boys or 50 girls, the reform schools being usually smaller than the industrial. In the religious education of the inmates the principal is aided by the neighboring clergy. The elementary education is almost the same as in ordinary schools, less attention being paid to literature and more to scientific matters. Industrial training is naturally more varied for boys than for girls. The marine schools prepare them to be sailors; the agricultural to be farmers; the urban to be tradesmen; the suburban schools add horticulture to the list of studies. The school bands are important for the recruiting of regimental bands. Industrial training has been extended greatly of late years on the basis of drawing; the reasons for doing things are always given to the pupil. Domestic life is the chief end in view in the training of girls. Nowhere else in Great Britain, it is claimed, is physical education more regarded than in these schools; a good physical preparation for active life is held to be vastly important; the boys found here are usually active to begin with. An ingenious system of rewards-giring stripes on the sleeve, privileges concerning letter writing and receiving visits, taking books from the library, and payment of pennies for good points made-brings the docile pupil into the highest class. On leaving he receives two suits of clothing, if his behavior has been good, and at least one-fourth of his capital due to good points made, with all that he has gained otherwise; the remainder is paid (within the three years he is supervised) every six months, if the reports are favorable. In most cases pupils are prevented from returning to their parents, who are likely to be depraved. Of 14,701 boys who left these schools from 1895 to 1898 about 10 per cent were committed to prison later, about 1,000 disappeared or died, the remainder entered the army or navy, or became farmers, mechanics, factory hands, or other regular workers. Most of the girls went into service as domestics or nurses. Especial pains are taken by voluntary committees to procure situations for discharged pupils, an aid which the State could not render.


The preceding account of the Social Economy Exposition has probably shown that in the field of social reform the United States has much to teach the Old World, as well as somewhat to learn of it. By the side of the other sections of the Exposition Universelle America has comparatively less to learn here and more to teach. The work of our Federal Department of Labor, for instance, has been recognized by foreign countries on previous occasions, and the exhibit of it in the United States section, consisting of a full set of its reports, together with the reports made by all the State departments from their beginning, was impressive, externally and internally. The exhibit, again, of the American Library Association in the same section was considered as altogether without a parallel and deserving the several grands prix bestowed on the exhibit and its makers.

What we have to learn from the continental nations is not so much in the direction of technical education as in that of artistic training proper. The American institutes of technology are at least equal to the similar schools of France or Germany or Russia. The substance of the work done by us in industrial and technical education is not excelled by that done abroad. But in matters of form and of art we have evidently much to learn. The ordinary observer would have noted this in the way in which some of our best exhibits in Paris were arranged. So much less of taste and artistic faculty was shown by the side of the French or the German or the Japanese exhibits. The artist would go farther and observe how similar things on exhibition both in the continental sections and in our own would attract by their industrial finish and beauty in the former case and repel by their lack

of artistic excellence in the latter. Most of all, Americans need to go to school to the French people in art matters proper. Our painters, indeed, who study in Paris are so obedient to their French masters that they are even reproached for lack of originality by French critics, who seem to think that excellence in form and color must be one thing in Paris and another in New York. If our industrialists will heed this example, and if our industrial and technical schools will bring their art departments up to the level of the technical departments, we shall have learned the chief lesson which the Paris Exposition of 1900 has to offer us. The first great exposition held in England admonished the English manufacturers, who had eyes to see, that they were far behind France in industrial art, and the Philadelphia Exposition of 1876 showed the United States how much Russian technical colleges had to teach us. Since 1889, again, in England technical and industrial education has so advanced that the English Royal Commission to Paris could say last year that "there are now few centers of industry and commerce in which technical education is not brought to bear on the various pursuits of the population.” (a) This statement is true as may be seen in such representative English towns as Leicester and Huddersfield, in smaller places like Hebden Bridge, and in the London polytechnics. (6) What we have to do in America is to extend the admirable work of our best American models of manual training and technical and trade schools all over the country, so that the English commission's words may apply to the United States as well as to England. A recent report of a committee of the American Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education, signed by several experts, has well declared that manual training and art education should be made a part of all public-school education, from the kindergarten to the high school, and it points to the public school established by Mr. J. H. Stout at Menomonie, Wis., as an ideal institution. Details of the methods needful for widely extending and improving our existing systems of art education are left to specialists; on the main point the great admonition of the Paris Exposition to American industry is that we should make our products more beautiful.

a See the handbook describing the British education section, p. 28.
b See Mr. Sidney Webb's account of the London polytechnic institutes.

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