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The provisions regarding the safeguarding of machinery are especially important and mention in great detail the precautions that must be taken. The main driving gear of any transmission must be provided with a system of disconnecting gear. When the same motor drives several transmissions in different places each transmission must he provided either with a disconnecting apparatus or with a signal for stopping the machinery or for putting it in motion. The putting in motion or stoppage of the machinery must always be preceded by a signal agreed upon. Mechanics in charge of machinery and foremen must always have within reach the apparatus for stopping the motive power and the transmissions. When the machinery is at a dead stop it must, as far as possible, be set in motion by means of a mechanical contrivance; but if it be effected by hand, the steam supply valve must he shut off during the whole operation. In any case, the special operatives having charge of such work must be adult males.
Transmissions of power by belting, shafting, gearing, etc., in a place through which workingmen pass must be inclosed in boxes or in cases at least 6 feet above the ground. Vertical shafting, belting, or cables running from one story to another must be inclosed in a box fastened to the ground to a height of 5 feet from the ground. Projections, such as bolts, nuts, etc., which form a part of a coupling must be avoided as far as possible, and when used must be covered with a cap. Belting over 2 inches wide and cables whose speed exceeds 1,600 feet a minute must, if fitted up above places occupied by operatives, be separated from them by boards, ladders, or bent iron bars, to prevent their striking the operatives in the event of their breaking. When the belting is over 14 inches wide it is expressly forbidden to place it by hand on pulleys in motion or to remove it by hand. These operations must be effected by means of a fork or a similar contrivance, and be confided to special workmen. This provision does not apply to stepped pulleys on machine tools. Fly wheels, cranks, connecting rods, etc., must be provided with protective apparatus.
There are special regulations regarding machine tools. When driven by transmitting shafts they must be provided with fixed and loose pulleys and with a contrivance for separating the belting from the pulley which can be easily worked from the place occupied by the operative, and so arranged that the belt can not slip back on the pulley by itself. All movable parts of machine tools must be covered or surrounded by safety appliances, cogwheels must be incased, ily wheels whose lowest point is less than 6 feet from the ground must be incased, projecting boltheads, etc., must be beveled down or capped, and oscillating parts be inclosed. Where sharp tools are driven with rapidity they must be so arranged that the workmen can not touch them, and the workmen must be protected against flying chips, etc. Further additional precautions, which are specified, must be taken in
the case of machine tools for working metal. In the case of woodworking machinery, circular saws must be provided with caps; beneath the table they, as well as band saws, must have a protecting case, and it is strictly forbidden to run more than one piece of wood at a time through a planer unless such machine is made to take in several pieces at once.
There must be an effective system of signals between the machine and the boiler when they are at a distance from each other, so that the machinery can be promptly stopped.
The oiling, examining, cleaning, and repairing of machinery while in motion is prohibited. Parts of machinery in motion must be provided with autoinatic lubricators, and when this can not be done the oiling must be done only when the machine is not in motion. The cleaning of shafts, pulleys, etc., when the machinery is in motion must be done only while standing on the floor of the workroom or on a solid platform. In either case brooms, brushes, hooks, etc., with handles of a proper length, should be used. It is expressly forbidden to wear gloves or mittens or to clean machinery in motion by hand with tow or waste.
The clothes of workmen near machinery in motion must be buttoned and close fitting. Workmen in foundries or forges and machinists must wear close-fitting shoes or boots. It is forbidden to wear gloves while handling saws. Workmen employed at machinery emitting sparks or splinters must wear spectacles; masks and screens may be used for the same object. Workmen employed in workshops where dangerous gasses are generated or where dust flies about must be provided with respirators.
Adequate means of egress must be provided; the main doors used as exits must open outwards, be left free during the entire working time, and be closed by means of weights or springs, but not by latches. The width of these doors must not be less than 48 inches and their height not less than 7 feet. Doors serving as means of egress for corridors, passages, etc., must not be of less width than such passages. The width of main passages must be at least 48 inches and that of side passages at least 24 inches, and must at all times be kept clear of obstructions. The main staircases must not be less than 12 feet between the landing places, and there must be a suflicient number of such staircases to allow of the building being immediately and easily cleared. The depth of the steps must be 12 inches and the height 8 inches. The staircases must be kept in good order and be provided with railings and balusters.
The precautions against or in case of fire that must be taken are given at length. They relate to the use of lighting fluids, gas, and electric light, to the precautions to be taken against explosions, the handling of inflammable materials, smoking in and entering rooms containing such materials, and the provision of fire escapes and other appliances.
The measures that must be taken in respect to stationary boilers, the inspection of steam boilers, the qualifications that must be possessed by stokers and engineers, etc., are all fully covered by the regulations. These provisions are not reproduced, as the consideration of laws regarding the inspection of steam boilers and the qualification of the persons in charge of them do not come within the scope of this report.
EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN.
As the subject of the employment of women and children is one of the most important points covered by the act, the provisions regarding it are given in full:
In establishments classified by the lieutenant-governor in council as dangerous, un wholesome or inconvenient, the age of the employees shall not be under 16 years for boys and 18 years for girls or women.
In all establishments other than those indicated in the preceding paragraph, the age of the employees shall not be less than 12 years for boys and 14 years for girls.
The employer of the child or young girl shall, if required, exhibit to the inspector a certificate of age signed by the parents, tutors or other persons having the lawful custody or control over such child or young girl, or the written opinion of a physician on the subject.
A new examination of the children or girls, already allowed to work in a factory, may, at the request of the inspector, be made, by one of the sanitary physicians, or by any other physician, and upon the advice of such physician, the employee examined may be discharged for being under age or physically unfit.
Except in the case mentioned in article 3026 [the one immediately following), no boy, under 18 years of age, and no child, girl or woman shall be employed in any of the establishments mentioned in article 3020 [see Scope of act) for more than 10 hours in 1 day or for more than 60 hours in any 1 week. Any employer may apportion the hours of labor per day for the sole purpose of giving a shorter day's work on Saturday. One hour shall be allowed at noon each day for meals, if the inspector so direct, but such hour shall not be counted as part of the time herein limited as respects their employment. The day of 10 hours mentioned in this article shall not commence before 6 o'clock in the morning nor end after 9 o'clock at night.
The inspector, for sufficient reasons given to him, and in order to make up lost time or to satisfy the exigencies of trade, may, for a period not exceeding 6 weeks, extend the time of employment of children, girls and women to 12 hours in a day, or 72 hours in a week, provided that the day shall not commence before 6 o'clock in the morning nor end after 9 o'clock in the evening, in the following cases: (a) When any accident, which prevents the working of any industrial establishment, happens to the motive power or machinery; or (b) when, from any occurrence beyond the control of the employer, the machinery or any part of the machinery of any industrial establishment can not be regularly worked; or (c) when any stoppage occurs from any cause whatsoever.
KEEPING OF REGISTERS, POSTING OF REGULATIONS, ETC.
To facilitate the enforcement of the law it is required of each employer or head of an industrial establishment to forward to the inspector a written notice giving his name and address, the name of the factory and its location, the nature of the work, and the nature and amount of the motive power employed. He must also keep a register giving the names and ages of all women and children employed, the duration of their labor, and the hours at which they begin and end work. He must furnish the inspector with a certificate from a health officer that his establishment fulfills the conditions as to salubrity and hygiene required by the act and the regulations of the board of health. Finally, he must keep posted in the most conspicuous places in the establishment the notices and provisions of the law and regulations supplied to him by the inspector, and keep them entire and legible.
REPORTING OF ACCIDENTS.
Every head of an industrial establishment must send within 48 hours of the accident a written notice to the inspector informing him of any accident whereby any of the workmen has been killed or has suffered serious bodily injury whereby he has been prevented from working. Such notice must state the place of residence of the person injured or killed, or the place to which he has been removed, so as to enable the inspector to hold the inquiry required by law.
INSPECTION OF FACTORIES.
For the carrying out and enforcement of the act the lieutenantgovernor is directed to appoint such number of inspectors as are necessary, one of whom shall be chief inspector. The supervision of the sanitary conditions of industrial establishments, however, is intrusted more particularly to the board of health of the Province. The lieutenant-governor on the recommendation of this body may appoint one or more sanitary physicians with special authority to supervise, under the direction of the board, the sanitary conditions of industrial establishments, as well as the execution of the sanitary regulations made by the board of health. The salaries of the inspectors and sanitary physicians and their powers and duties, in so far as they are not fixed by this act, are determined by the lieutenant-governor. Both classes of these officers are under the general control of the commissioner of public works.
The powers and duties of these officers are stated at length in the act. They require but little comment, however, as they are such as are usually given to inspection officers. They can enter establishments at all reasonable times, require the production of registers, certificates, etc., be accompanied by a constable if necessary, summon witnesses,
administer oaths, etc. Every person willfully delaying or obstructing them in the performance of their duties, or failing to comply with a summons, or concealing a child, or making a false entry or statement, or generally violating the law, is liable to punishment by fine or imprisonment.
All prosecutions under the act are instituted by the inspector and may be made before the judge of the sessions or the police magistrate in the cities of Montreal and Quebec, or before the district magistrate, or before any justice of the peace of the place where the offense was committed.
The regulation of factories was first provided for by the recent act of July 5, 1900, which is known as The Manitoba Factories Act. The fact that this act is modeled after and is very similar to the Ontario act makes it unnecessary to give more than a brief account of its provisions. The definition of a factory under the Manitoba law is quite similar to that given by the Ontario act. The schedule of factories, however, contains the names of but 95 different establishments, but these are establishments of more usual occurrence, and the lieutenant-governor in council has, as in Ontario, the power to add to or take away from this list. Any establishment in this list in which two or more persons are employed comes within the scope of the act. In defining the cases of exemption, the Manitoba act places a maximum limit of 4 empioyees where the Ontario act specifies 5. Otherwise the application of the act in the two Provinces is the same.
Regarding the provisions in relation to the protection of the health and lives of employees, the Ontario act is closely followed. The Manitoba act, however, adds to the provisions that factories shall not be overcrowded so as to be injurious to the health of employees the clause that “a notice shall be posted in such room specifying the number of employees who shall be allowed to work in such room.
In the provisions regarding the employment of women and children, the most marked difference between the Manitoba and Ontario acts that should be noted is the different definition of what is a "child" and what a young girl.” In the Ontario act a “child” is a person under 14 years of age; in the Manitoba act, a person under 16 years of age. In the Ontario act a "young girl” is a girl of the age of 14 years and under the age of 18 years; in the Manitoba act, a girl of the age of 16 years and under the age of 18 years.
In Manitoba the general rule is laid down that no child shall be employed. As in the case of the Ontario ac the lieutenant-governor in council may prohibit the employment o“ girls under 18 years and boys under 16 years in factories which are deemed by the lieutenantgovernor in council to be dangerous and unwholesome. No child,