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well of Dut I tell us love tl
ourselves well unto them, as well in words and countenances, as in all our outward acts and deeds. For so Christ Himself taught, and so also He performed indeed. Of the love of God He taught on this wise unto a doctor of the law that asked Him which was the chief and great commandment of the law. Love thy Lord God, saith Christ, with all thy heart, with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. And of the love that we ought to have among ourselves, each to other, He teacheth us thus. You have heard it taught in times past, Thou shalt love thy friend, and hate thy foe. But I tell you, love your enemies, speak well of them that defame and speak evil of you, do well to them that hate you, pray for them that vex and persecute you, that you may be the children of your Father that is in heaven, &c.” “ Thus have I set before you what charity is,---whereby every man may without error know himself, what state and condition he standeth in, whether he be in charity and so the child of the Father in heaven or not. For although almost every man persuadeth himself to be in charity, yet let him examine none other man, but his own heart, his life and conversation, and he shall not be deceived, but truly discern and judge, whether he be in perfect charity or not. For he that followeth not his own appetite and will, but giveth himself earnestly to God, to do all His will and commandments, he may be sure that he loveth God above all things, and else surely he loveth Him not whatsoever he pretend. As Christ said, If ye love me, keep my commandments; for he that knoweth my commandments and keepeth them, he it is, saith Christ, that loveth me. And again He saith (John xiv.) he that loveth me will keep my words, and my Father will love him, and we will both come to him and dwell with him: And he that loveth me not, will not keep my words. And likewise he that beareth a good heart and mind, and useth well his tongue and deeds unto every man, friend and foe, he may know thereby that he hath charity. And then he is sure that Almighty God taketh him for His dearly beloved son, as St. John saith. (1 John iii.) Hereby manifestly are known the children of God and the children of the devil : for whosoever doth not love his brother, belongeth not unto God."*
It may be necessary to remind the reader, before we proceed, that « most excellent” as " the gift of charity” is, it is not the principle of justification. But as this point is fully proved in the preceding essay, it will be needless to resume the argument. That our most exalted love is imperfect, needs no other demonstration than the prayer which we are taugbt to use for its increase. And that which is imperfect itself tequires forgiveness, instead of justifying the person in whom it is found. The righteousness of Christ is the sole cause of acceptance with God, and faith the exclusive instrument of its application to the heart.
Faith, hope, and charity are however inseparably connected, so that wherever either of these graces is found, the others exist also: and the vigour of the two latter is always proportioned to the vigour of the former. “ Faith believes the “ revelations of God; hope expects His promises;: - charity loves His excellencies and mercies."of
* A new octavo edition of the Homilies has been published at the Clarendon press. It is a pity that it does not find a place in every churchman's library.
Faith therefore is the cause; hope and love the effects which it produces. That is the parent, these the children. A general and historical faith may exist without love. But a justifying faith, which, preceded by conviction of sin, apprehends and applies the merit of Christ for pardon and salvation, necessarily begets charity, * “ the
* That genuine faith is not necessarily productive of love and good works, was one of the errors of popery on account of which the church of England separated from the see of Rome. This error has however been maintained by some modern Divines, although the church of England in her articles and homilies is directed against them. The 12th article and the whole of the first part of the homily on faith is on this subject. Bishop Jewel, in his apology for the church of England, also says, chap. 2. §. 23, " The true faith is a s living faith, and cannoi be idle.” Bishop Davenant, another luminary of the reformation, in his exposition of the Epistle to the Colossians, reasons thus on the subject. Concedimus posse mentem hominis ita illustrari, ut credat Deo; id est, ut assentiatar verbo divino in genere, et tamen inte rim sit expers charitatis; hanc fidem infor 'em appellant Scholastici, nos fidem historicam, sive fidem generalem. Sic Antissiodorensis perantiquus Scholasticus, lib. 3. Fide informi credimus Deo; id est, quod sit Deus, et quod Deus sit omnipotens, et multa alia. De hoc etiam loquitur Jacoa bus, cap. ii. 14. Quid prodest, si fidem quis dicat se habere, opera autem non habeat? Deinde paulo post, Diaboli credunt et contremiscunt. Sed est alia etiam fides, quam nos justificantem appellamus, Scholastici formalem ; quæ non solum credit Deo, sed in Deum, id est, quæ apprehendit Deum, ut sibi placatum et reconciliatuin in Christo; atque hanc dicimus nunquam sejungi a charitate. Prior est simplex irradiatio, non virtus theologica ; hæc posterior est primaria inter tres illas celebres theologicas virtutes, Hujus autem nexus perpetuus cum charitate probatur multis rationibus. 1. Quia hæc fides Deum apprehendit ut bonum et misericordem et salutis authorem sibi per Christum; at hæc apprehensio parit amorem Dei necessario; sic enim Antissiodorensis, Æstimatio quâ aliquis æstimat per fidem Deum esse summum bonum suum, generativa est desiderii illius boni, lib. 3. 2. Quia fides justificans sanctificat et purificat corda; at cor expers charitatis non est sanctificatum
“ final object whereof is that incomprehensible
beauty, which shineth in the countenance of “ Christ, the Son of the living God."* Charity however, is not of the essence of faith ; for faith precedes and produces love, and works by it.
aut purificatum. 3. Quia omnis quicredit verâ fide et justificante, habet jus ad vitam æternam. Sic enim Baptista, Qui credit Filio, habet vitam æternam. Et Paulus ad Galatas, Omnes filii Dei estis per fidem. Sed hæc nemini competunt qui est expers charitatis. 4. Ipsi scholastici docent, tres illas virtutes theologicas semn per esse connexas, &c. &c. Ex his patet, cum papistæ disputant veram fidem posse a charitate sejungi, illos vel ambiguitate vocabuli ludere, vel suis scholasticis repugnare. Fides enim illa, quæ est expers charitatis, differt specie ab hac justificante; hæc enim est virtus theologica, illa non est: differunt objecto; hæc enim Deum sibi in Christo reconciliatum apprehendit, illa non potest apprehendere : differunt effectibus ; hæc enim pacem conscientiæ affert, illa timorem ; differunt actibus : hujus enim actus est credere in Deum, illius est tantum credere Deo, ut antea ostendimus. The dispute which has arisen on this subject, will apologize for the length of this extract,
+ Restat ultima quæstia, quæ spectat ad fidem et charitatem : scilicet an charitas sit ita conjuncta cum fide, ut sit forma fidei : Sic videtur Thomæ, Durando, et aliis recensioribus. Imaginantur enim fidem per se esse quiddam mortuum et inanime; et quicquid vitæ vel meriti habeat, illud mutuaria charitate tanquam ab animâ et formâ suâ. At contra pugnat (quem sæpe nominavi) Antissiodorensis, lib. 3, ubi defendit, fidem veram et formatam esse naturâ priorem charitate. Ratio 1. Justus ex fide vivit ; ergo ex fide diligit; ergo fides viva est prior naturâ quam charitas, et proinde non formatur et vivificatur a charitate, Ratio 2. Ex 1 Timoth. i. 5. Finis mandati est charitas ex puro corde, fide et non fictâ ; ergo vera fides, et cor purificáns, parit charitatem ; et per consequens non est formata a cha. rițate, Rațio 3. Motus fidei formatæ præcedit motum charitatis; ergo ipse habitus fidei formatæ naturâ præcedit habitum charitatis. Nam prius in Deum credimus, et fidem nostram reponimus, quam illum amare possumus,
- We now proceed to shew that a man may
Did sweeter sounds adorn my flowing tongue,
Ratio 4. Ex Apostolo ad Galatas, In Christo Jesu neque circumcisio valet, neque præputium, sed fides, que per dilectionem operatur ; ergo fides est efficiens causa charitatis, et proinde charitas non est forma fidei, sed filia vel famula. Davenant in Epist. ad Coloss. · How fast we are hastening back to Rome, the reader may judge by comparing these extracts with some specimens of modern Divinity. O how little did the good Bishop think, when he quoted the schoolauthors against the papists, that a time would 'arrive when it would be necessary to quote himself, on the very same points, against some Divines of his own protestant church