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constantly kept his old leather breeches which he wore when he first came to Oxford, as a memorial of his original condition. Of money he was very careless, and he was so liberal in his distributions to the poor, that he at last became one of them himself.

In what a high estimation he was held on account of his extraordinary learning and eminent virtues, will appear from the number of foreigners who cameto England on purpose to prosecute their studies in the college over which he presided. Among these were Cluverius, Amama, Rumphius, and many others who attained a great name in different branches of learning,

This bishop has in print his Theological Lectures, in Latin, several Sermons, A History of Successions in States, Countries, or Families, 8yo, &c.

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JOHN HALES:

ALTHOUGH by the quaint courtesy of his contemporaries, this excellent person obtained the singular appellation of the “Ever-memorable Hales,” his name and works are not at present so much known as they deserve.

He was a native of Bath, and was entered a student of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, at the early age of thirteen. He afterwards became fellow of Merton College, where he obtained the friendship of the learned Sir Henry Savile, * whom

he

* Few men have more claims upon the gratitude of the lovers of literature than Sir Henry Savile. He was a native of Yorkshire, and became fellow of Merton College, Oxford, where he acquired a great name for his skill in the Greek language, and the Mathematicks. In the former he had the honour of teaching Queen Elizabeth, who gave him the Provoststrip of Eton College. He was knighted by King James, who would have bestowed considerable preferments upon him, which he refused. Sir Henry published an English translation of the four first books, and the Life of Agricola of 'Tacitus; also a Collection of the best Ancient Writers of our English History; an edition of Bradwardin de Causa Dei, &c. &c. In 1619, he founded two Professorships at Oxford, one of Geometry, and the other of Astronomy, which he endowed with a salary of one hundred and sixty pounds a year each.

he assisted in preparing his capital edition of the
works of Chrysostom.

He also contracted an intimacy with Sir Duda
ley Carleton, whom he accompanied in his em-
bassy to the United Provinces, where Mr. Hales
attended the Synod of Dort, of whose proceed-
ings he gave an account in a series of letters to

G

Sir Henry died in 1621, and was buried in the chapel of
Eton College. The following curious letter, by him to Sir
Robert Cotton, was printed by Hearne, in 1626.

« SIR,

niy own

I have made M. Bodley acquainted with your kind and
friendly offer, who accepteth of it in most thankful manner;
and if it please you to appoint to-morrow at afternoon, or upon
Monday or Tuesday next at some houre likewise after dinner,
wee will not faile to bee with you at your house for that pur-
pose. And remember I give you faire warning, that if you
hold any booke so deare, as that you would be loath to have
him out of your sight, set him aside beforehand. For
part, I wil not do that wrong to my judgment as to choose
of the worst, if better bee in place: and beside you would
account mee a simple man, But to leave jesting, wee wil
any of the days come to you, leaving, as great reason is, your
own in your own power freely to retaine or dispose. True it
is that I have raised some expectation of the quality of your
guest in M. Bodley, whom you shal find a gentleman in all
respects worthy of your acquaintance. And so with my best
commendations, I commit you to God, this St. Peter's
Day,

“ Your yery assured Friend,

“ Henry SAVILE."

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his patron.* Before this he was a Calvinist, but the arguments of Episcopius, in favour of Universal Redemption, were so strong, that from that time, as he told one of his particular friends, he “bade John Calvin good night.t”.

By the interest either of Savile or Carleton, but most probably the former, he was made a fellow of Eton College; but being suspected of holding some unsound notions, Archbishop Laud sent for him to Lambeth. Of this interview Dr. Heylyn, in his life of that great but unfortunate prelate, gives us the following account.

“ About nine of the clock in the morning Hales came to know his Grace's pleasure, who took him along with him into his garden, com

* This assembly was held for no other purpose than to condemn those who professed the doctrines commonly called Arminian: and these letters, written by Mr. Hales, give a very exact, but by no means a pleasing picture of this famous Protestant Council. It appears'that though the Remonstrants (as the Arminians were called) were summoned to the Synod, they were not permitted to speak in it, but were treated as criminals. Our James the first was weak enough to send deputies thither to represent the Churches of England and Scotland; but it is remarkable, that these delegates came home much more moderate than they went out.

† Sometime afterwards, a friend calling upon Mr. Hales, found him reading Calvin's Institutions, on which he asked him“ if he was not yet passed that book," to which he an

swered, “In my younger days I: -ad it to inform myself, but - How I read it to reform him.'

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This eminent prelate was the son of William Laud, a clothier, at Reading, and born
there in 1573. From the free school there, he was removed to Oxford in 1589. In 1593,
he was elected fellow, and in the year ensuing took the degree of B. A. and in 1598 that
of M. A. being also chosen grammar lecturer for that year. In 1600, he was ordained
deacon, and priest in 1601. Being chosen proctor of the university in 1603, he became
chaplain to Charles Blount, Earl of Devonshire, and the year following took the degree
of B. D. Contending for the visibility of the church, the necessity of baptism and dioce-
san bishops, he was opposed by Dr. Holland, at that time divinity professor, as aiming
to sow division between the church of England and the reformed churches abroad.
Henceforward his opinions rendered him obnoxious to moderate men, and the public re-
sentment was not a little increased by his imprudently marrying his patron, the Earl of
Devonshire, to Penelope, the divorced wife of Lord Robert Rich.

Till 1617, his promotion in the church was very considerable, and he was now chosen
to attend his Majesty, James I. to Scotland, where his fruitless endeavours to bring the
kirk to a uniformity with that of England served to increase the number of its enemies.
Charles I. ascending the throne, bishop Laud was taken into the highest degree of favour
and confidence; he was extremely active in the high commission court, and is supposed
to have prompted the execution of the barbarous sentence passed upon Dr. Alexander
Leighton, a Scotch divine, who wrote “ Zion's Plea against Prelacy.” In his professional
capacity, after Laud became archbishop, his chief employment seems to have been the
care of the externals of religion. He caused the churches in general to be ornamented
with pictures and images; the communion tables in each to be railed in at the east end,
and denominated altars. Kneeling at these altars, and the use of copes, were also rigo-
rously enforced, the whole of which were regarded as so many advances towards popery.
In 1634, he caused the revival of 6 The Book of Sports,” actively prosecuting such
clergymen as refused to read it. His next effort was to compel foreigners residing in
England to conform to the established church. The violent proceedings against Prynne,
Bastwick, and Burton, generally increased the popular resentment against the archbishop;
his ingratitude to archbishop Williams; the measures he advised against Scotland ; and,
lastly, what was deemed the pious mummery performed by himself in the consecration of
the church of St. Catharine Cree; contributed to render this unfortunate ecclesiastic al-
most an object of general detestation.

The constitutional canons issued from the convocation, continued by Laud after it should have broken up, at length roused all the vengeance of the celebrated assembly, called the Long Parliament. Denzell Holles, second son to the Earl of Clare, by their order, impeached the archbishop of high crimes and misdemeanors at the bar of the upper house. In March 1641, he was committed to the Tower amidst the reproaches and insults of multitudes, and ordered to pay a fine of more than 20,000l. In 1644, he was brought to trial, which lasted twenty days, and he was found guilty, though not upon sufficient evidence; the king's pardon was disregarded, and, on the 10th of January 1646, beheaded on Tower-hill; where, though he made a long and affecting speech, numbers seemed to rejoice in his death; and he thus fell a victim to his endeavours to extend the royal prerogative beyond its due limits in church and state.

He was, says Fuller, low in stature, little in bulk, cheerful in countenance, of a sharp

and nboting the intuon

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