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maintain stock levels to support a primary relay and electronic switching station in the U.S. Army worldwide communications system in a remote area. Workload is estimated at 8,000 line items per month. No building exists to meet this need.

The second line item is for a troop command administrative building at an estimated cost of $91,000. This building is required for administrative control of troop command and provides office space for troop commander, executive officer, first sergeant, et cetera. Also provides space for arms storage and supply room. In addition, a part of this building will provide office space for the agency Intelligence and Security Branch and the installation post office. There are no structures existing to fulfill this requirement.

The third line item is for a perimeter security fencing at an estimated cost of $94,000. This item is required to insure physical security of this vital installation. This is a new installation and additional fencing is required to complete the perimeter security fencing and preclude unauthorized entrance into installation.

Senator ENGLE. May I ask a question there, Mr. Chairman? Do each one of these services maintain a separate communications system?

General SEEMAN. It is all coordinated under the Department of Defense, sir. They have a special communications committee that correlates these things, and the Air Force has the responsibility for certain directions, for example, for one part of the world; the Army another part; they build where the best existing facility is consistent with terrain, meteorological, and other conditions necessary for communications.

General Cook can answer.

Senator ENGLE. All I want to find out is whether or not you are running parallel telephone lines. You have got this correlated so that if the Navy wants to talk over your system they can do it, can they not, and vice versa ?

General CooK. Yes, sir. The answer to your question, sir, parallel telephone lines, I presume you mean radio circuits and the like?

Senator ENGLE. I know the Navy is in here with all sorts of communications. They do not talk to everybody, but I want to find out whether or not there is any method used to prevent duplication and overlapping so that each service is not running its own communications system, whereas they might be able to overlap and use each others.

General Cook. The question of whether there is duplication and more services than are necessary has been discussed at the Department of Defense level for some time, sir, and through J-6 in the JCS we have a coordinated plan to eliminate any needless duplication.

Each one of the services provides contractual services for the other services over certain of their long-haul circuits, yes.

Senator STENNIS. If I may ask you a question, and tell you what I believe, I believe that largely each service has a worldwide communications system of its own, not altogether, but I think there is a great deal of duplication. It is something like Topsy, it just grew.

Senator ENGLE. I am concerned about it.

Senator STENNIS. I am not disputing the general. I know there is coordination now, but basically there is a great deal

General SEEMAN. Mr. Chairman, you are exactly right. The extent of duplication is certainly what you want to be sure is controlled, but there is a certain amount of duplication which you must have to insure in case something is put out that you have an alternate route, and I think there is the question of what the degree is, that is the thing to be concerned about.

Senator STENNIS. If it will just be coordinated and have a reasonable amount of alternates, I mean an alternate that you mentioned, that is all right. But everywhere I turn

General SEEMAN. It is conceivable for the Navy, in its requirement to contact the fleets, will have certain channels and certain requirements that they all might not want to come in through one entry point on the Pacific coast, for example, or on the east coast. There should be an alternate routing.

Senator STENNIS. Not one cable, but it is a duplication of the systems and all.

May I make one comment, gentlemen, about Korea before we leave it, primarily to the members of the committee? I had a reliable estimate while I was there, all too briefly, that if the Korean economy should develop to its highest expectations, that is, within its reasonable probabilities, it would still be able to pay only 26 percent of the present cost of the military that is essential to protect it. That is full expansion of economy and agriculture, and still it would pay only 26 percent of the load. I also learned that they were inclined at that time to not trade with their most natural trade ally, it seemed to me, Japan.

I did see the other day where there was a commission that was going to study the possibilities, and might open up some trade channels with Japan, I mean, Korea and Japan. But it is a discouraging situation out there in many respects.

I find your Army General Magruder to be a very competent man, as well as a personable one.

All right, next item.

General SEEMAN. We covered the three items of Fort Allen, Puerto Rico?

Senator STENNIS. Yes.

FORT BUCHANAN, SAN JUAN General SEEMAN. The next item then is Fort Buchanan in Puerto Rico for 100 Capehart family quarters.

Senator STENNIS. All right. Next item.

EUROPEAN COMMAND AREA General SEEMAN. The next area is in Europe, page 369, where there is but one line item requested for new authorization this year, a sprinkler system in our warehouses in Livorno, called Camp Darby, for a sum of $221,000.

Senator STENNIS. That is in Italy?
General SEEMAN. Yes, sir.

Senator STENNIS. You mean in all of Western Europe the Army is only asking one new item?

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General SEEMAN. Yes; for authorization. Senator STENNIS. One authorization? General SEEMAN. We do have more items in carryover authorization for which we are requesting funding in due course.

This item is required for fire protection of twelve 40,000-square-foot warehouses, each containing $1 million to $5 million in monetary value of strategically important supplies. Ability to replace these supplies is hampered by a necessary leadtime up to 6 months. A major fire loss in any one of these warehouses would probably seriouly impair or disrupt the mission of this command and the Mediterranean area. Without automatic sprinkler protection, the whole contents of any warehouse is exposed to total loss. Existing protection is provided with one fire company and water supplied through a 4-inch main. Senator STENNIS. All right. Next item.

ARMY SECURITY AGENCY

USASA LOCATION 12 General SEEMAN. The next item is the Army Security Agency, beginning on page 372. We are requesting a total of $2,964,000 at eight locations. The first of these is location 12 in Japan, where we are asking for four projects at a total cost of $517,000.

The first of these projects is transmitter facilities for $101,000. This item is required to meet the requirement for reliable communications which is a part of the mission assigned to this station by higher headquarters. High-powered transmitters are to replace present lowpowered continuous wave tactical-type transmitters which only partially fulfill requirements. The present transmitters are now located at location 12 in huts and other scattered quonset facilities which are also used for other purposes. These temporary facilities will continue in use during the buildup on this expanding station. The 15kilowatt power output of programed transmitters necessitates approximately a 10-mile separation from stations prime mission receiving facilities and from Foreign Broadcast Information Service receiving facilities established at nearby Chitose I. This requirement for separation from operations area prohibits continued use of existing facilities at location 12 and requirement for separation from Foreign Broadcast Information Service receivers rules out locating in facilities at Chitose I. An offpost site has been located at Numanohata which meets all operational requirements.

The second project at location 12 is an addition to operations building for $65,000. This item is needed to accomplish increases in the assigned mission. Need is met now by an existing 26,945-square-foot semipermanent structure, scheduled to be expanded by 2,617 square feet during fiscal year 1960 and proposed for a final expansion by this request of 2,911 square feet during fiscal year 1961. If this expansion is not provided, the unit will not be able to fully accomplish its assigned mission.

The next item is an addition to an enlisted men's barracks at $96,000. This addition to the fiscal year 1958 MCA authorized barracks is needed to adequately house all enlisted men of USASA, Navy, special Signal Corps unit, and Far East network required to be at this location. This addition together with the fiscal year 1958 MCA authorized barracks and family housing programed in the fiscal year 1960 surplus commodity funding program will provide for the long-range strength of this station. Enlisted men are now housed at two main locations (4-mile separation) in 68,391 square feet at location 12, and 57,469 square feet at Chitose I. These facilities are all quonsets built in 1951 and are past their point of diminishing utility as barracks. When new facilities are available, the quonsets at Chitose I will be turned over to the Japanese Air Self Defense Forces; those at location 12 will be used primarily for storage for the duration of their useful life. If this project is not approved, quonset facilities must continue to be utilized.

The last item at location 12 is a frequency converter plant for $255,000. This is required to accomplish an increased operational mission demanding high quality performance of operational equipment, 60cycle power with minimum voltage and frequency variations. At present, 50-cycle commercial (Japanese) power is being used supplemented by 50-cycle emergency power (three 100-kilowatt generators in the operations building). If this project is not accomplished, the numerous operational difficulties that are directly attributed to existing electrical power will continue; thereby preventing maximum operational efficiency.

USASA LOCATION 13 The next location for the Army Security Agency is location 13, page 379. Again there is an electrical power requirement for frequency converter and an operations building addition at a total estimated cost of $327,000.

The first of these is an addition to the operations building similar to that one requested at location 12. The estimated cost is $72,000. The second project is a frequency converter plant identical to the one requested at location 12 and the same cost, $255,000. The basis of requirement is the same as those requested for location 12.

This is in an area where the construction is done by the United Kingdom.

Senator STENNIS. All right.

USASA LOCATION 23 General SEEMAN. The next item is location 23 on page 382, two enlisted men's barracks, without mess, at an estimated cost of $561,000.

Senator STENNIS. This is classified now?
General SEEMAN. The location is classified.
Senator STENNIS. Put it on your list for executive session, please.
Next item.

USASA LOCATION 90

General SEEMAN. The next item is location 90. It is in Japan, a transmitter facility at an estimated cost of $84,000.

Senator STENNIS. All right.

USASA LOCATION 177 General SEEMAN. The next one is a location for the agency in Korea. This is more or less an entire integrated facility to be moved to a new location, and involving these six items all the way from barracks and BOQ's, mess, motor repair shops, utilities, and operations building, at a total estimated cost of $1,264,000.

Senator STENNIS. Are you going to take care of 420 extra men at a cost of $400,000; is that correct?

General SEEMAN. That is correct. The present operational location of this particular unit is in the wrong place, exposed, and it requires adjustment in the logistics area to a better location.

Furthermore, the existing buildings are pretty much worn out and dilapidated and uneconomical to repair anyway.

Senator STENNIS. Well, I saw there in the Korean Army the ultimate in austerity. I want to give Senator Case one illustration.

The Army goes out in its spare hours and makes the tiles and the blocks on the ground and builds the barracks themselves, and the dollar cost is very, very small. Actually they make up this tile, what we would call concrete blocks, everything right on the spot.

I was very much impressed, and they work with great enthusiasm. I have some pictures I want to show you.

Senator CASE. Was that U.S. personnel or Koreans?

Senator STENNIS. No, that is Koreans all the way through. We furnish them with military assistance.

General SEEMAN. There is no contracting industry in Korea as we know it. They have some contractors there, but it is a combination of labor service, contractors, self-help and materials and use of all resources.

Senator STENNIS. You see, this is the Army unit in the company, they build the barracks for themselves. All right, next item.

USASA LOCATION 321 General SEEMAN. The next location is 321 on page 395, sir, headquarters building at one of the locations in Korea at an estimated cost of $31,000.

USASA LOCATION 321-A General SEEMAN. The next location, on page 397, consists of three enlisted men's barracks. They are now billeted in Quonset and Jamesway Huts, which is a temporary expedient, and this estimate of $100,000 would put them in better accommodations.

USASA LOCATION 321-B General SEEMAN. The next location is on page 399, also is for two 40-man barracks.

Senator STENNIS. All right.
General SEEMAN. That completes the Army Security Agency:

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