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area, which will provide closer staff supervision and coordination of assigned units. The temporary buildings, which are being utilized as headquarters buildings are World War II temporary type structures located approximately 0.5 mile from the permanent barracks. These temporary buildings have inadequate heating systems (50 percent efficiency), no ventilation systems, and poor lighting. If this item is not provided, the command and administrative functions will be separated from assigned units, resulting in reduced efficiency.

The second line item is for conversion of heating plant and extension to gas distribution lines costing $363,000. This involves the conversion of eight low-pressure steam boilers from hand-fired coal to automatic combination gas/oil fired plants, and one steam stoker fired to gas fired.

The conversion of 9 existing heating plants will service 13 existing buildings which will be retained in the long range program. These buildings are presently heated with hand-fired coal-fueled 100 horsepower fire-tube steam boilers which are being serviced by civilian firemen. It is estimated that the cost of converting will be amortized in 36 months on the savings realized from operating labor, fuel, and maintenance. If conversion is not accomplished, repairs to operate the existing plants in the amount of $79,000 are required. The requested extension of gas distribution lines from A Avenue to the shop area is required to serve the permanent facilities constructed in the fiscal year 1956, 1957, 1958, and 1959 MCA programs.

The next station on page 50 is the New Cumberland General Depot, a very small item for a shop to handle the diesel locomotives that move the cars in and around the depot.

Senator STENNIS. Pardon me now, I got lost.
General SEEMAN. Page 50, sir.

Senator STENNIS. Fort Lee, that item there, the conversion heating plant, that is just going over to gas, is that what you mean?

General SEEMAN. It is a conversion of some old heating plants of low pressure steam into more modern plants. '

Some of them will remain, will be kept in standby. They estimate that if they do not accomplish this conversion, they will have to make major repairs of the existing plants. They have been in use for 18 years, and this would be highly uneconomical.

Senator STENNIS. What about your storeroom buildings, down there? It seems to me when you have such a large installation as this you ought to be able to find facilities for storerooms. Maybe not as convenient or as modern as new ones, but you have got $63 million down there already.

General SEEMAN. Well, these battalion headquarters and storerooms are very intimately connected with the men themselves. It is their operation and it is not storage of supplies of a bulk nature. It is the immediate concern of the battalions that are in those permanent barracks. They have temporary buildings that are half a mile or a mile or so away.

It is just that they are not there for the service of the people that are living in the barracks.

Senator STENNIS. All right, next item?

NEW CUMBERLAND GENERAL DEPOT, PA. General SEEMẠN. The next installation is New Cumberland General Depot, Pa. The mission of this depot is to receive, store, and distributo all types of Quartermaster, Ordnance, Chemical, Engineer, and Signal Corps supplies; fourth echelon maintenance and depot support of CONUS Army aircraft.

The item is for a small locomotive repair shop at $89,000. They have an existing shed for that, but it is a sheet iron shed and cannot be heated in the winter, and the roof leaks and it is unsafe.

Senator STENNIS. $89,000? All right, sir.

QUARTERMASTER RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING

CENTER, MASS. General SEEMAN. The next installation is the Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Mass., on page 53. The basic mission of this center is to translate development prototypes to mass producible items and to provide technical services and engineering support to the Quartermaster Corps. Four line items are being requested for this station totaling $3,628,000. Three of these items are to provide laboratory and administrative facilities for research and engineering activities of the Quartermaster Food and Container Institute for the Armed Forces. This facility is now located at the Chicago Administration Center which is scheduled to be disposed of due to obsolescence and costly upkeep.

The first line item is for an office and heavy laboratory building for $1,783,000.

The office portion of the proposed structure will house administrative elements of the Research and Engineering Command (now located in the development building) and a consolidated library. This will release equivalent space in existing buildings for occupancy by laboratory and administrative elements of Food and Container Institute. The laboratory wing will house lab equipment requiring independent foundations due to heavy loading or vibration, together with closely related activities. Collateral equipment costs comprise $306,000 for purchase of new laboratory equipment and $141,000 for installation of new and reused equipment (including necessary repairs).

The second line item is for a development building addition and conversion in the amount of $1,643,000. This involves the conversion of the first floor of this existing building from office space to basic research laboratory facilities to centralize laboratory services.

This item is required to provide facilities for in-house research and engineering activities of the Quartermaster Food and Container Institute of the Armed Forces, now located at the Chicago Administration Center. Based on fiscal year 1959 dollar figures, 51 percent of Food and Container Institute work is conducted in-house. This capability is required, since other Government agencies and private industry lack experience and interest in developing subsistence items and containers which meet military requirements, but may not be salable in the civilian market, for example, precooked, dehydrated, and irradiated foods. The recent decision to suspend construction of a pilot production plant for radiation preservation of foods at Sharpe General Depot will have no impact on the requirement for Food and Container Institute facilities for continued research and development of food irradiation preservation processes.

The existing development building at the Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center is a specially designed laboratory structure. The entire first floor is now devoted to office use. To minimize the cost of meeting facilities requirements of the Food and Container Insttiute, it is proposed to convert this space for laboratory use and relocate the present occupants to the less costly office facility which is included in line item 15. Other Food and Container Institute lab requirements would be met by extending the length of the existing 3-story and basement development building.

Collateral equipment costs comprise $517,000 for new lab equipment and $235,000 for installation of reused equipment (including necessary repairs).

The third line item is for animal laboratory facilities at a cost of $168,000. This item is also in the Food and Container Institute. Investigation of climatic effects and nutrition upon operational efficiency by the use of human subjects has just about reached the limit of practicability. More stressful, long-continued, or hazardous conditions which may be expected to occur frequently under combat conditions, space flight, and temperature extremes cannot be studied by these means. In these fields, animal and human reactions must be studied together to the limit of human tolerance; then continued on animals alone into more extreme conditions. The limited number of enlisted men test subjects limits the use of humans to only those studies for which they are essential, and substitution of animal experiments wherever possible.

Existing facilities for animal work are strictly temporary and inadequate. At the Food and Container Institute, pigs are housed in an unventilated basement area of a warehouse-type building. Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center animals are housed in a truck-trailer van and refrigerator boxes modified for such use. Supply, care, and disposal of animals at the Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center are handled by contract at present. It is not feasible to provide adequate facilities by modification of existing structures. It is planned to construct the permanent animal laboratory facilities at the Maynard Quartermaster test activity, approximately 12 miles from the parent Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center.

The animal laboratory activities described above are so interrelated and the experiments are so mutually dependent that consolidation of these operations in a single facility is considered to be justified without regard to the future location of the Quartermaster Food and Container Institute. Such consolidation will serve to reduce the leadtime for many developments in this field.

As the solar furnace comes into full operation, many animals will be required and the present contract arrangements for supply, care, and disposal will be inadequate. If the proposed facility is provided, many of the animals could be used for other purposes (after recovery from burns) instead of being disposed of by the contractor. This would effect a significant economy in the cost of animals.

The fourth and last line item at this installation is an enlisted men's barracks addition for $34,000.

This item is required to provide adequate troop housing for scientific and professional enlisted personnel assigned to the Quartermaster Food and Container Institute for the Armed Forces. This activity, now located at the Chicago Administration Center, Chicago, Ill., will be relocated to the Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center when facilities listed above are completed.

The long-range planning strength of enlisted men detachments now at the Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center and Food and Container Institute is 122. This figure includes a 7-man signal meteorological team and one criminal investigator, now permanently assigned. Experience indicates that the armywide housing factor (24 percent of total enlisted men) is applicable in this case. Thus, permanent enlisted housing requirements comprise 31 noncommissioned officer family quarters and 99 enlisted men barracks spaces.

The present enlisted men strengths of detachments at the Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center and Food and Container Institute are 75 and 37 respectively. Using the 24-percent factor, there is an integrated current requirement for 28 noncommissioned officer family quarters and 84 enlisted men barracks spaces. The proposed addition to the barracks will increase the gross barracks area (exclusive of transformer room, kitchen, mess, and utility rooms) from 8,464 square feet to 10,464 square feet. This will meet current criteria for peacetime capacity of 84 enlisted men. The troops to be housed in this barracks are largely scientists and professionals, selected for their special skills, training, and experience; consequently the percentage of higher grades is greater than normal. At present, one-third of the troops stationed at the Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center have grades above E-5 and 50 percent are above E-4. This condition is considered to justify the maximum allowable gross barracks area. There is no suitable existing building at the Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center which could be utilized as, or converted into, an adequate barracks facility to meet this requirement. Kitchen and mess facilities in the existing barracks are adequate to support the proposed addition.

Senator CASE. Why did the House leave this item out?

General SEEMAN. Sir, a portion of the Quartermaster Research and Development Command is now housed in Chicago in the old Quartermaster depot. During the war the Quartermaster General had a large Quartermaster depot there. This proposed construction is primarily for the Food and Container Institute.

The Food and Container Institute in 1955 became the host agency in the old depot and we have on our hands a tremendous white elephant in the stockyards areas of Chicago. We can make a saving by closing this Chicago Administrative Center, as it is now called. We can save in the neighborhood of $1 million a year in overhead and maintenance charges. However, it does require that we find a place for the current tenants. This can be done for all except the Food and Container Institute of this Research and Development Command.

This construction at Natick does that, and brings them under their senior command headquarters in a more central and more economical location.

Senator STENNIS. Now this $1 million you are going to save in maintenance per year, is that based upon an actual survey that you have made?

General SEEMAN. Yes; this has been very thoroughly studied for some time.

Senator STENNIS. And you don't just pick that out of the air. That is what you have got as an answer to the request ? General SEEMAN. Yes, sir.

Senator STENNIS. Senator Case, do you have anything further on that? We have letters here, from Senators Douglas and Hartke that I will put in the record at this point unless there is objection. (The letters referred to follow :)

CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES,

February 25, 1960. Hon. John STENNIS, Chairman, Subcommittee on Military Construction, Senate Armed Services Committee, Washington, D.C.

DEAR SENATOR STENNIS: In the military construction bill, H.R. 10220, presently before the House Armed Services Committee and soon to be considered by your subcommittee of the Senate Armed Services Committee, there is a provision on page 3 (lines 3-5) to appropriate $3,628,000 for research development and test facilities and troop housing for the Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center in Natick, Mass.

As you know, this item seeks, in effect, to authorize the transfer of the Quartermaster Food and Container Institute from its longstanding location in Chicago to the Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center in Natick, Mass.

I am opposed to this transfer because I am convinced that the location of the Institute in Chicago, the center of the food industry, is much more conducive to its economical and efficient operation, in view also of the location of the Subsistence Supply Agency and other research laboratories of the food industry and various universities in Chicago and the Middle West. The Army has not, in any material submitted to me, sustained the burden of proving the need for or desirability of this move.

Substantial opposition to this move has developed on the part of those in Illinois who are most familiar with its work. On the basis of the presentation before the House committee by Congressman Yates and other Members of Congress from Illinois, and statements presented by responsible Illinois civic and business leaders, the House committee deleted this item from H.R. 10220, and appointed a special subcommittee to go into it more fully.

The purpose of this letter is to request that if and when the Senate committee decides to take testimony on this item in the Military Construction Authorization Act, notice may be given to me in sufficient time to advise the Chicago representatives of the Association of Commerce and Industry, the Illinois Institute of Technology, and others, to enable them to present their information for the consideration of your subcommittee.

I would also appreciate your advising me whether you can schedule time when
they may appear personally and testify.
With all kindest regards.
Faithfully,

PAUL H. DOUGLAS.
U.S. SENATE,

April 2, 1960.
Hon. JOHN STENNIS,
Chairman, Subcommittee on Military Construction,
Senate Committee on Appropriations, Washington, D.C.

DEAR JOHN: I understand that S. 3006 (companion to H.R. 10220) provides for the authority to construct new facilities at Natick, Mass., to house the Army Quartermaster Food and Container Institute presently located on the South Side of Chicago which adjoins my State.

Of course, from a purely selfish standpoint I am opposed to the transfer. In addition to this, however, it would seem to be in the interests of economy and

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