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ble, that he may have generously fect innocence, or the demands of consented to bear what was de- the law being otherwise fully satisserved by some one, whom he af- . fied: neither of which reasons are fectionately loves, and who is less supposed to exist in this case. able than he, to endure the merited As to the question, which scheme chastisement. But I am assured departs farthest from justice? that this too is not the fact. I feel there can be no doubt. The perplexed, and the proceeding is scheme we oppose expressly admits to me the more unaccountable, be- that in the justification of a singer, cause I know the father to be emi- justice and law have none of their nently affectionate, wise, and pru- demands. His sins have not been dent. The explanation, at last, is expiated by the obedience of given. The father designs this as Christ; he is not made legally a display of his deep abhorrence of righteous. There is in this case a profane and licentious conduct. total abandonment of the claims of He intends to make manifest to all justice and righteousness: and in around, by this severity, that he contradiction to them, the sinner feels an irreconcilable detestation enjoys not only impunity, but the of such conduct. Now, while I ad- most exalted rewards of righteousmire the design, I cannot but think ness, even eternal glory. This that the means are very strange scheme of abstract atonement it is and irrelevant; and that special supposed so accounts for the sal. kindness to his son, and express vation of a sinner, as that his “ “pardisapprobation of the guilty, would don is absolute, and an act of mere have exhibited his state of feeling grace; and of grace on the part of more intelligibly, and with more God the Father, as well as on that monitory effect.

of God the Son." But we think, if In this view of the sufferings of it be an objection to the grace of Christ, there is a departure from the other scheme that it supposes justice, incomparably wider than satisfaction made to Divine jusin his sufferings regarded as strict- tice, the same objection lies against ly vicarious.

this scheme also, when fully exa2. The same thing is true as re mined. An atonement, it is admitspects the justification of those ted, has been made; and that if the who believe. A sinner who has in salvation of man had not been deten thousand instances violated the signed, it would not have been law, and never perfectly obeyed it made. But, moreover, it was made in any instance, is not only pardon- with special reference to the sined, but justified, and entitled to ner's salvation ; every sinner is eternal glory. “It is, therefore," justified in consideration of it, and says one writer, "a real departure not until he has acknowledged the from the regular course of justice, wisdom and necessity, and pleaded and such a departure from it, as the benefit of that atonement. leaves the claims of the law on the Justification, then, in this case, is persons justified, forever unsatis- not in all respects an act of mere fied.”

With what propriety, I grace, but involves a regard to an ask, can this be called justifica- atonement made, as manifestly as tion? It is a case with which jus- when Christ's death is considered tice has nothing to do. God may as strictly vicarious. . be gracious in saving sinners, but Farther—the justification of sinhe is not just: nor does he in this ners, it seems to be thought, is not view justify any believer in Christ. of grace, if Christ paid for them *Justification can take place only the demands of the law. Why on one of two reasons, either per- not? Though it be in its general

character a dispensation of justice, cious and imperishable. But it has it is to man wholly of grace. There often been said, no certainty can is grace, on God's part, in admit- . be gained in mental science. Atting a substitution, and accepting tainments in this department are the sinner on his pleading that vi- only theories, which may or may not carious satisfaction. In the plan of be true: these theories are built on redemption, God the Father main- mere speculation, contradictory, untains the rights of the divine go- settled, and changing as often as vernment and authority.; and I see

the fashions of the times. Now no objection to the grace of man's in sober earnestness, we believe salvation, though the Mediator paid the above representation has more the uttermost farthing, whilst the of truth than of caricature or prejubenefits of his mediation are given dice, in its application to the multo man most gratuitously. The tiplied theories for explaining mendivine plan secures a perfect satis. tal phenomena which have prevailfaction to the law. It is a mattter ed for ages. Even since Bacon furwholly between the glorious per- nished the key to knowledge, and sons of the 'Trinity. And having taught men how to explore the remade a wise and holy adjustment, cesses of philosophy, this departwith a view to the salvation of sin- ment has been left mostly in the ners, they bestow it on man accord- hands of speculative theorists. It is ing to the riches of divine grace. not now entirely rescued from the The Scripture speaks of grace, not mysticism and dogmatism of theso much with respect to the motives oretick speculation; and we fear it or measures of God's acts in them- is not likely soon to be so rescued. selves, as in their effect on men. There is ground for strong preju

The special application of the dice, not against the science itself, effects of atonement, is as much a but against the manner in which matter of sovereign pleasure, and multitudes have written and spoken distinguishing grace, on the vicari- on the subject; and against the ous plan, as on the other. An unwarranted application of the speatonement for sin in general, it is culations. said, leaves it as a matter of sove. Every man who now undertakes reign pleasure to whom it shall be to write or speak on the subject, is applied. True; but God's pur- met by this prejudice, and will be pose ascertained to whom this ap- considered by many judicious and plication would be made. This good men as enamoured of deceptive purpose also ordained the death of and uncertain speculation. We Christ, and ascertained to whom propose now to disabuse ourselves that application should be made. In of such an imputation; and we either way, the sovereign freedom think this can be done in two ways and grace of salvation is the same. -by a fair and candid examination

The scheme of abstract atone of the method which we have purment, therefore, removes no diffi- sued, and which we have called inculties alleged to belong to the con- ductive--and secondly, by bringing trary scheme; but increases them the radical principles of our articles in magnitude and number. M. to the test of divine revelation. If

we do not. greatly mistake, both these ways will bring us to the same

result, and conduct us to the truth. Radical Principles brought to the

The first method will ascertain test of Revelation.

the facts as they exist, together Truth is worthy of being sought, with their character and relations, examined, and treasured as pre- which must be true. If this method

MENTAL SCIENCE.

be properly understood and follow- philosophy be brought to the standed, there can be no doubt of what is ard of divine revelation. But even fully ascertained. The only diffi- in this process there is a liability to culty that can be found in this me error, against which we should be thod, occurs in the process of exa- specially guarded. There is a strong mination. It is confessedly difficult propensity in men to interpret the to adhere rigidly and throughout to holy scriptures by theory, and not the inductive method. In a subject on philological principles. This meso abstracted in its nature from ma. thod will prove any dogma, how. terial things, which claim so much ever absurd, provided it correspond of our attention and contribute al- with the theory. By using a theory most solely to form our habits, an which gives a peculiar shade and honest mind may mistake some part meaning to all those passages of the of the process and substitute theory scripture which recognise the phefor fact; this being done in the ex nomena and principles of human amination of radical principles, the action, that particular theory will 'whole result may be vitiated. For be established, however absurd in we maintain that facts, truly esti. itself. Great care should therefore mated, constitute the whole science: be taken, first to ascertain the consequently if some are mistaken meaning of such passages as deveor falsely estimated, it will be ana Jope the laws of human action and logous in the end to the results faculties of mind, from the legitiproduced in arithmetical calcula- mate rules of interpretation. This tions, when a false value is applied difficulty will be readily apprecito some of the numbers employed. ated by the careful and conscienBut difficulties are not to be es tious interpreter of revelation. teemed impossibilities. We think We mention one other ground of this whole subject may be so exa- liability to err: taking detached pormined as to dispel all reasonable tions of the scriptures, without due doubts, and bring us to a satisfac- regard to the scope and intention tory conclusion. It has been our of the writer, the usus loquendi, object in the preceding articles to and all appropriate methods of asexamine facts as they are found, certaining the mind of the spirit. without regard to theory. If we

But if we can ascertain the true have succeeded in our object, it is meaning and intention of the Holy unnecessary to reconsider the in- Spirit, and find the principles and duetive test in this place. We call laws of the human mind recognised upon all those who are accustomed in the bible, we shall have a sure to examine their own minds, to test by which to estimate any given bring the radical principles of these principles of mental philosophy. essays to the inductive test, and we We shall endeavour to take such a fearlessly abide the result. If we course in the present examination. have made a mistake in any fact, In doing this it is not necessary, or in the estimation of any fact, we nor will our limits permit us, to atshall be glad to correct it, and as tempt the interpretation of all those certain the whole truth. We pass portions of the scriptures which reover this method for the present, fer to the radical principles of menand proceed to bring the radical tal science, or which may be supposprinciples, which we think suffi- ed to recognise the elements of true ciently ascertained for the purpose, philosophy. It will at once be perto the scriptural test.

ceived that such an extended examiWe have said, an honest mind nation would furnish a volume inmay err in the inductive process, stead of a brief essay. That on which therefore, let the principles of our we intend particularly to insist is,

that all the radical principles of men- nomena.” This we still affirm, tal philosophy which can stand, must and therefore insist, that all the be brought to the test of the scrip- radical principles of mental philo-. tures, fairly and philologically in- sophy so employed, in order to be terpreted. And while we insist on safe, must accord with facts, and this, we shall adduce a few exam be tried by other portions of reveples to illustrate the principle. Alation, which distinctly recognise few cases, if they be fair specimens, the facts as they actually exist

. may as truly and satisfactorily Otherwise theory may be substi. prove the doctrine, as to go over tuted for fact, and speculation for, the whole ground and attempt to. dictates of the Holy Ghost. But collect all those passages which re we need not here pursue this tocognise the facts in this science. pick, because we have already Some of those facts are so obviously stated the doctrine in our remarks on the face of the whole bible, that on the proper method of investiit is scarcely necessary to mention gating this branch of philosophy. them at all. This is one feature of The reader will find those remarks, divine revelation which adapts it as they are connected with some so precisely to the wants and con other important principles in vol. dition of men.

IX., pages 125 to 131. We have said that “all the high We now proceed to the exami. and holy communications of reve nation proposed, which is the prin. lation are made to man, and prin- cipal object of this article. Here cipally respect his mind. The character of inan's immortal spirit dical principles of our essays, and

it may be proper to collect the ra. is there described; its present ob state them briefly in connexion, Jigations are defined, and its future that we may distinctly perceive . prospects indicated.” In the ap what are to be examined. So far plication of this doctrine, we may as will be necessary for our present be sure that the facts, which con- purpose, the following enumeration stitute the basis of all correct men will be sufficient. tal philosophy, will be found in the Mind is a simple, iminaterial, infallible revelation. We are not spiritual substance, cognizable by sure that the facts will be found its exercises. This mind has three together, and arranged in system distinct faculties, which we call atick form. It was not the inten

understanding, heart, and will; and tion of God's revelation to teach to which we ascribe all mental phe. men a system of mental philosophy, nomena according to their approbut all the facts which are the ele- priate classification—the doctrine ments of the science must be di.

of motive and of ultimate and subrectly or incidentally recognized. ordinate objects-the doctrine of Were it not so, the document would freedom and of power—and the be imperfect in its adaptation to doctrine of responsibility: men's condition, and fail to accom When this enumeration shall plish the object for which it was

have been brought to the test

, and given.

found to correspond with the inWe have also said that "all men fallible standard, whatever parts of are governed in their interpretation the system remain will be readily of many things in the bible, by seen and proved. some principles of mental science,

The radical principle, with which which they have adopted. This is

we commence, is, that the human matter of necessity, inasmuch as mind is a simple, immaterial

, spi. many directions refer men to their ritual substance. If this be not own consciousness of mental phe- true, the very subject of all our

investigations has been mistaken; that the sacred writers have used and all our inquiries are worse it to denote respiration, a living than lost. If this will not bear the creature, and the animal есопоту; test of revealed truth, we shall but neither of these can be intendhave occasion to proceed no fur- ed in application to the soul of tủer. But on this principle we en Adam. We might cite multitudes counter very little opposition from of other passages where the immaany believer in divine revelation. terial soul of man is intended, but The doctrine in its length and a few will suffice. Take Gen. xxxv. breadth, is so conspicuous on the 18. “And it came to pass, as her pages of that infallible word, that [that is, Rachel's] soul was in dethere is almost an entire agree- parting,” &c. We know that it ment among all who receive the has been said this soul intends her document as inspired. Still, it may breath, but if she had an immortal be well to examine the alleged spirit, it is certainly most natural principle, and compare it with a and most rational to suppose that few passages selected from a great the historian intended to refer us multitude. If we have proved any to its departure. The same term thing on this topick, we have as is used in 1 Kings xvii. 21, 22. certained that mind is the perma When Elijah prayed,

« let this nent subject of those numerous and child's soul come into him again;" diversified phenomena, of which we and the recorded answer to his are conscious, and which differ in prayer is"the soul of the child their nature and laws from all that came into him again.” Can any pertains to matter. This perma one doubt that this Hebrew term nént spiritual substance we call here refers to the living, immatemind, soul, or spirit. "The scrip- rial spirit of the widow's child? tures, in the common translation, We think the circumstances of the use the same terms, and add one history render its meaning exceedmost important item of intelligence ly plain. Take one specimen of concerning its destiny: it is im- God's command to Israel, from mortal.

Deut. xi. 13- to love the Lord The Hebrews employed three your God, and to serve him with terms with great frequency to de- all your heart, and with all your note this incorporeal part of man.

souliThis must mean something Those terms, it is true, have va in men not corporeal; and if so, it rious other significations, but it is includes all that belongs to their not possible to doubt, that they are spirit. Take another passage from often used for the purpose here al- the prophet Isaiah, chap. Iv. 3. “Inleged.' And we consider it un cline your ear, and come unto me: necessary to attempt any protract- hear, and your soul shall live.” ed inquiry into the radical meaning We consider this decisive in its of those terms. A few passages reference to the immortal spirit. containing each of the terms, will We cite only one example more, be entirely sufficient to furnish an and that is from Ezek. xviii., 4. undoubted test in the present case.

Behold, all souls are mine; as The first word alluded to above, the soul of the father; so also the is vb), which is employed-in Gen. soul of the son is mine:. the soul ii. 7: “And the Lord God formed that sinneth it shall die." The man of the dust of the ground, and testimony of these passages, and of breathed into his nostrils the breath multitudes more, is conclusive that of life; and man became a living the Hebrews used the term above soul.With reference to this He- mentioned to designate an immabrew word, it may be proper to say terial, spiritual principle in man.

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