round..... of St. Domingo 3,440 1,981 2,130 2,430 2,594 2,627 semi-transpa- } 2,586 rent, grained. fibrous Weight of a cubic foot, in Ounces. 3,000 from Dauphiny. 2,669 2,672 2,854 2,186 2,766 2,478 2,324 2,710 2,484 1,714 2,385 2,341 2,146 2,570 915 160.6 57.2 2,416 151.0 2,601 162.6 2,765 172.9 2,676 167.2 2,754 172-1 3,728 233.0 2,793 174.6 4,954 309.6 3,900 241.2 4,101 256.4 215.0 124.0 133.1 152.0 162.1 164.2 161-6 187.5 167-0 167.0 178.4 136.6 0.079 173.0 0.099 154.9 0.090 145.2 0.084 2,510 157.0 0.091 0.075 2,049 128.1 0.098 0.090 0.062 0.086 0.084 0.077 0.094 0.033 0.088 0.094 0.099 0.097 0.099 0.135 0.101 0.180 0.140 0.149 0.125 0.071 0.077 0.088 0.094 0:095 0.094 0.108 0.097 0.097 0.104 STONES, EARTHS, ETC. Stone, Clicard, from Brachet.. 66 "6 from Ouchain.. 66 66 "" 66 66 "" ،، (C 66 66 ،، 66 (6 66 touch..... Sulphur, native.. 66 melted.... Talc, black...... 66 crayon..... "" German .. (6 Notre-Dame Oriental blue.. paving rag.. ... ... rock of Chatillon. St. Cloud...... St. Maur Muscovy ... Weight of a cubic foot, 1 2,357 2,378 2,771 2,416 2,570 915 Weight of Weight of a cubic foot, | a cubic inch, in Pounds. in Pounds. 147.4 142.1 148.6 173.2 151.0 160.6 57.2 2,601 162.6 2,722 170.1 2,470 155.4 1,981 124.0 2,122 132.6 2,945 184.1 2,201 137.6 2,034 127.1 2,415 151.0 127.1 1,991 124.5 181.2 2,089 130.6 2,246 140.4 2,792 174.5 2,653 166.0 0.085 0.082 0.085 0.099 0.088 0.094 0.033 0.094 0.099 0.090 0.071 0.076 0.107 0.079 0.075 0.088 0.075 0.071 0.105 0.075 0.081 0.101 0.097 APPLICATION. RULE.-Find, by the rules in the "Mensuration of Solids," the solidity of the material of which the weight is required, and multiply that solidity by the factor, in the foregoing table. EXAMPLE 1.-Required the weight of a bar of iron 12 feet long and 1 inch square? Weight of 1 inch bar-iron, as per table, page 135, is 0-281. 12 feet 144 inches. Then .281 X 144 inches 40.464, or 40%, or 40 lbs. nearly. EXAMPLE 2.-Required the weight of a plank of yellow fir, 11 inches wide, 3 inches thick, and 20 feet long? 20 feet 240 inches. One cubic inch yellow fir, as per table, 0.023; therefore ·023 × 240 × 11 × 3 — 182∙160, or 182%, or 1824 lbs. nearly, THE STEAM-ENGINE. THE power of the steam-engine is estimated by that exerted by the horse. A horse-power, as fixed by Watt, is equal to 33,000 lbs. avoirdupois, raised one foot high per minute; and one day's work of a horse, is this power, acting through eight hours. The pressure of steam is calculated in pounds avoirdupois on the square inch, in perpendicular inches of mercury, and in atmospheres; each atmosphere is estimated as equal to the average pressure of our atmosphere at the surface of the earth. The pressure of the atmosphere is reckoned as equal to that of 30 perpendicular inches of mercury; or 14.7 lbs. per square inch, or 11.55 lbs. per circular inch. To find the Horses' power of an Engine, according to Mr. Watt's rule. From the diameter of the cylinder in inches, subtract 1, square the remainder, multiply the square by the velocity of the piston in feet per minute, and divide the product by 5640. The quotient will be the number required. GENERAL PROPORTIONS OF CONDENSING ENGINES. Cylinder. The best proportion is when the length is twice the diameter; because the cooling surface is then least, in proportion to the content of steam. Air-Pump and Condenser.-In double condensing engines, these are made, by Boulton and Watt's rule, each to measure one-eighth the content of the cylinder. Velocity of the Piston to produce the best effect. In engines working the steam expansively, 100 times the square root of the length of the stroke in feet, is the best velocity in feet per minute. In engines not working expansively, 103 times the square root of the length of the stroke in feet, is the best velocity in feet per minute. To find the quantity of Water required for Steam and Injection. Multiply the area of the cylinder in feet, by half the velocity in feet for single, and by the whole velocity in feet for double engines. Add for cooling and wasting; and this, divided by 1497, (at the common pressure on the valve of 2 lbs. per circular inch,) will give the quantity of water required for steam per minute. The quantity of water for injection should be 24 times that required for steam. The diameter of the injection-pipe should be th part of that of the cylinder. The valves should be as large as practicable. The boiler should be capable of evaporating about 12 gallons per hour for each horse-power. NON-CONDENSING, OR HIGH PRESSURE ENGINES. The length of the cylinder should be at least twice its diameter. The velocity of the piston, in feet per minute, should be 103 times the square root of the length of the stroke in feet; or 100 times, if the steam is worked expansively. The area of the cylinder should be, to the area of the steam-passages, as 4800 is to the velocity of the piston, found as above. Form and Direction of Steam-pipes.--Enlargements in steam-pipes succeeded by contractions, always retard the velocity of the steam-more or less according to the nature of the contraction-and the like effect is produced by bends and angles in the pipes. These should, therefore, be made as straight, and their internal surface as uniform and free from inequalities as may be practicable. The following proportions of velocity, from Mr. Tredgold, will exemplify this:— The velocity of motion that would result from the direct unretarded action of the column of fluid which produces it, being unity.............. 1000 or 8 The velocity through an aperture in a thin plate •625 or 5 by the same pressure is Through a tube from two to three diameters in length, projecting outwards..... Through a tube of the same length, projecting inwards....... Through a conical tube, or mouth-piece, of the form of the contracted vein...... .813 or 6.5 •681 or 5.45 •983 or 7.9 |