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ers, charterers, agents, masters or persons in charge of vessels and to other persons transporting, carrying, conveying, storing, stowing or using explosives on board any vessel.

$ 146.20–7 Class A explosives. Class A explosives are defined as:

(a) Type 1. Solid explosives which can be caused to deflagrate by contact with sparks or flame such as produced by safety fuse or an electric squib, but cannot be detonated' by means of a No. 8 test blasting cap." Examples: Black powder and low explosives.

(b) Type 2. Solid explosives which contain a liquid explosive ingredient, and which, when unconfined, can be detonated by means of a No. 8 test blasting cap;' or which can be exploded in at least 50 percent of the trials in the Bureau of Explosives' Impact Apparatus. under a drop of 4 inches or more, but cannot be exploded in more than 50 percent of the trials under a drop of less than 4 inches. Examples: Commercial dynamite containing a liquid explosive ingredient.

(c) Type 3. Solid explosives which contain no liquid explosive ingredient and which can be detonated, when unconfined, by means of a No. 8 test blasting cap; ? or which can be exploded in at least 50 percent of the trials in the Bureau of Explosives' Impact Apparatus“ under a drop of 4 inches or more, but cannot be exploded in more than 50 percent of the trials under a drop of less than 4 inches. Examples: Commercial dynamite containing no liquid explosive ingredient, trinitrotoluene, amatol, tetryl, picric acid, urea nitrate, pentolite and commercial boosters.

(d) Type 4. Solid explosives which can be caused to detonate, when unconfined, by contact with sparks or flame such as produced by safety fuse or an electric squib; or which can be exploded in the Bureau of Explosives' Impact Apparatus ' in more than 50 percent of the trials under a drop of less than 4 inches. Examples: Initiating and priming explosives, lead azide, fulminate of mercury, etc.

(e) Type 5. Desensitized liquid explosives are explosives which may be detonated separately, or when absorbed in sterile absorbent cotton, by a No. 8 test blasting cap; ? but which cannot be exploded in the Bureau of Explosives' Impact Apparatus' by a drop of less than 10 inches. The desensitizer must not be

significantly more volatile than nitroglycerin and the desensitized explosive must not freeze at temperatures above minus 10° F. Example: Desensitized nitroglycerin.

(f) Type 6. Liquid explosives that can be exploded in the Bureau of Explosives' Impact Apparatus * under a drop of less than 10 inches. Example: Nitroglycerin. See “Prohibited or not permitted explosives" in § 146.20–3.

(g) Type 7. (1) Blasting caps are small tubes, usually made of an alloy of either copper or aluminum, or of molded plastic, closed at one end and loaded with a charge of initiating or priming explosives, Class A-Type 4, either with or without other suitable explosives. The total weight of explosives per unit shall not exceed 150 grains. Blasting caps' which have been provided with a means for firing by an electric current, and sealed, are known as electric blasting caps.

(2) Detonating primers are devices for commercial use which contain a detonator and an additional charge of explosives, all assembled in a suitable envelope.

a (3) Detonating fuzes, class A explosives, are used in the military service to detonate the high explosive bursting charges of projectiles, mines, bombs, torpedoes, and grenades. In addition to a powerful detonator, they may contain several ounces of a high explosive, such as tetryl or dry nitrocellulose, all assembled in a heavy steel envelope. They may

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1 The detonation test is performed by placing the sample in an open-end fiber tube which is set on the end of a lead block approximately 112 inches in diameter and 4 inches high which, in turn, is placed on a solid base. steel plate may be placed between the fiber tube and the lead block.

? A No. 8 test blasting cap is one containing 2 grams of a mixture of 80 percent mercury fulminate and 20 percent potassium chlorate, or a cap of equivalent strength.

3 "Unconfined" as used in this section does not exclude the use of a paper or soft ilber tube wrapping to facilitate tests.

* The Bureau of Explosives Impact apparatus is a testing device designed so that a guided 8-pound weight may be dropped from predetermined heights so as to Impact specific quantities of liquid or solid materials under fixed conditions. Detailed prints may be obtained from the Bureau of Explosives, 30 Vesey Street, New York 7, N. Y.

5 Blasting caps, blasting caps with safety fuse, or electric blasting caps in quantities of 1,000 or less are classified as Class C explosives.

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also contain a small amount of radioactive component. Those that are so made and packed that they will not cause functioning of other fuzes, explosives, or explosive devices in the same or adjacent containers are classed as class C explosives.

(h) Type 8. (1) Any solid or liquid compound, mixture or device which is not specifically included in any of the above types, and which under special conditions may be so designated and approved by the Bureau of Explosives. Example: Shaped charge, commercial.

(2) A shaped charge, commercial, consists of a plastic, paper, or other suitable container comprising a charge of not to exceed 8 ounces of a high explosive containing no liquid explosive ingredient and with a hollowed out portion (cavity) lined with a rigid material. This device shall not contain a detonator. Shaped charges, commercial, having exposed lined conical cavities must have such cavities effectively filled; those having conical cavities that are covered shall be paired together with the cavities facing each other and with one or more pairs in a fiber tube, or so arranged that the conical cavities of the shaped charges at the ends of the column face toward the center of the tube. The shaped charges in the fiber tube must fit snugly with no excess space and the fiber tubes containing the shaped charges must be packed snugly with no excess space in the outside containers.

(i) Ammunition for cannon. Ammunition for cannon is fixed, semifixed, or separate loading ammunition which is fired from cannon, mortar, gun, howitzer or recoilless rifle.

(j) Ammunition for cannon with projectiles. Ammunition for cannon with explosive projectiles, gas projectiles, smoke projectiles, incendiary projectiles, illuminating projectiles, or shell, is fixed ammunition assembled in a unit consisting of the cartridge case containing the propelling charge and primer, and the projectiles, or shell, fuzed or unfuzed. Detonating fuzes, tracer fuzes, explosive or ignition devices, or fuze parts with explosives contained therein must not be assembled in ammunition or included in the same outside package unless shipped by, for, or to the Departments of the Army, Navy, or Air Force of the United States Government or unless of a type approved by the Bureau of Explosives.

(k) Explosive projectiles. Explosive projectiles are shells, projectiles, guided missiles with war heads, war heads, or rocket heads, loaded with explosives or bursting charges, with or without other materials, for use in cannons, guns, tubes, mortars or other firing or launching devices.

(1) Grenades. Grenades, hand rifle, are small metal or other containers designed to be thrown by hand or projected from a rifle. They are filled with an explosive or a liquid, gas or solid material such as a toxic or tear gas or an incendiary or smoke producing material and a bursting charge. When shipped without explosives or bursting charges, see “Chemical ammunition, class A or B poisons," as set forth in $ $ 146.25-100 and 146.25-200. For tear gas grenades see $ 146.25-300.

(m) Explosive bombs. Explosive bombs are metal or other containers filled with explosives. They are used in warfare and include aeroplane bombs and depth bombs.

(n) Explosive mines. Explosive mines are metal containers filled with a high explosive.

(0) Explosive torpedoes. Explosive torpedoes, such as are used in warfare, are metal devices containing a means of propulsion and a quantity of high explosives.

(p) Rocket ammunition. Rocket ammunition is fixed ammunition which is fired from a tube, launcher, rails, trough, or other device as distinguished from cannon ammunition which is fired from a cannon, gun, or mortar. It consists of an igniter and propelling charge, commonly described as a motor, and explosive projectile, gas projectile, smoke projectile, incendiary projectile, or illuminating projectile, fuzed or unfuzed.

(q) Ammunition for small arms with explosive bullets or explosive projectiles. Ammunition for small arms with explosive bullets or ammunition for small arms with explosive projectiles is fixed ammunition to be used in machine guns or similar fire arms and consists of a metallic cartridge case, the primer and the propelling charge, with explosive bullet or explosive projectile with or without detonating fuze, the component parts necessary for one firing being all in one assembly. Detonating fuzes, tracer fuzes, explosive or ignition devices or fuze parts with explosives contained

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therein must not be assembled in ammunition or included in the same outside package unless shipped by, for, or to the Departments of the Army, Navy, or Air Force of the United States Government or unless of a type approved by the Bureau of Explosives.

(r) Chemical ammunition. Chemical ammunition used in warfare is all kind of explosive chemical projectiles, shells, bombs, grenades, etc., loaded with toxic, tear, or other gas, smoke or incendiary agent; also such miscellaneous apparatus as cloud-gas cylinders, smoke generators, etc., that may be utilized to project chemicals.

(s) Boosters, bursters and supplementary charges. Boosters and supplementary charges consist of a casing containing a high explosive and are used to increase the intensity of explosion of the detonator of a detonating fuse. Bursters consist of a casing containing a high explosive and are used to rupture a projectile or bomb to permit release of its contents.

(t) Jet thrust units (jato), Class A explosives. Jet thrust units (jato), Class A explosives, are metal cylinders containing a mixture of chemicals capable of burning rapidly and producing considerable pressure. Under certain conditions the chemical fuel with which the unit is loaded may explode. Jet thrust units are designed to be ignited by an electric igniter. They are used to assist aeroplanes to take off, to propel large missiles and to drive moving targets for practice firing.

(1) Igniters, jet thrust (jato), Class A explosives, are devices consisting of an electrically operated or remotely controlled igniting element and a fast-burning composition assembled in a unit for use in igniting the propelling charge of jet thrust units. Under certain conditions the burning composition may explode.

(u) Charged oil well jet perforating guns. Charged oil well jet perforating guns are steel tubes or metallic strips into which are inserted shaped charges connected in series by primacord. These devices are not permitted to be shipped on board any vessel subject to the regulations in this subchapter.

(v) Type 9. Propellant explosives, Class A, are solid chemicals or solid mixtures which are designed to function by rapid combustion of successive layers, generally with little or no smoke. The

combustion is controlled by composition, size, and form of grain. Propellant explosives, Class A, include some types of smokeless powder and some types of solid propellant explosives for jet thrust units, rockets or other devices. Any propellant explosive in Class A which detonates in any one out of five trials when tested in the packages in which it is offered for transportation. In conducting the test, one propellant container shall be surrounded by inert loaded containers of the same weight, including one inert container placed on top of the propellant container. The propellant shall be ignited by means of a commercial electric squib placed within 4 inches of the bottom of the container. The presence of a crater and the absence of flame shall be considered as evidence of detonation. (CGFR 52-8, 17 F. R. 6464, July 17, 1952; CGFR 52-62, 17 F. R. 11881, Dec. 31, 1952, as amended by CGFR 53-54, 18 F. R. 8231, Dec. 16, 1953; CGFR 54-52, 19 F. R. 8514, Dec. 14, 1954; CGFR 55-20, 20 F. R. 4053, June 10, 1955; CGFR 57–33, 22 F. R. 8572, Oct. 29, 1957; CGFR 57–49, 22 F. R. 10060, Dec. 14, 1957]

$ 146.20-9 Class B explosives. Class B explosives are defined as those explosives which in general function by rapid combustion rather than detonation and include some explosive devices such as special fireworks, flash powders, some pyrotechnic signal devices and solid propellant explosives which include some smokeless powders. These explosives are further specifically described

as:

(a) Ammunition for cannon with empty projectiles, inert-loaded projectiles, solid projectiles or without projectiles, or shell, and catapult charges exceeding 2 inches in diameter, is fixed ammunition assembled in a unit consisting of the cartridge case containing the propelling charge and primer with empty, inert-loaded, or solid projectiles, or without projectiles, which is fired from a cannon, mortar, gun, howitzer or recoilless rifle. (b) Rocket ammuni

is fixed ammunition which is fired from a tube, launcher, rails, trough, or other device as distinguished from cannon ammunition which is fired from a cannon, gun, or mortar. It consists of an igniter and propelling charge, commonly described as a motor, and empty projectile, inertloaded projectile or solid projectile, or without projectiles.

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(c) Special fireworks are manufactured articles designed primarily for the purpose of producing visible or audible pyrotechnic effects by combustion or explosion. Examples are toy torpedoes, railway torpedoes, some firecrackers and salutes, exhibition display pieces, aeroplane flares, illuminating projectiles, incendiary projectiles incendiary bombs and smoke projectiles or smoke bombs fuzed or unfuzed and containing expelling charges but without bursting charges, hand or rifle grenades with ignition elements but not containing bursting charges, flash powders in inner units not exceeding 2 ounces each, flash sheets in interior packages, flash powder or spreader cartridges containing not over 72 grains of flash powder each and flash cartridges consisting of a paper cartridge shell, small-arms primer, and flash composition, not exceeding 180 grains all assembled in one piece. Fireworks must be in a finished state, exclusive of mere ornamentation, as supplied to the retail trade and must be so constructed and packed that loose pyrotechnic composition will not be present in packages in transportation.

(d) Jet thrust units (jato), Class B explosives, are metal cylinders containing a mixture of chemicals capable of burning rapidly and producing considerable pressure.

Jet thrust units are designed to be ignited by an electric igniter. They are used to assist aeroplanes to take off, to propel large missiles, and to drive moving targets for practice firing.

(1) Igniters, jet thrust, are devices consisting of an electrically operated or remotely controlled igniting element and a fast-burning composition assembled in a unit for use in igniting the propelling charge of jet thrust units.

(2) Starter cartridges, jet engine, consist of plastic/rubber cases, each containing pressed cylindrical block of propellant explosives and having in the top of the case a small plastic compartment that encloses an electric squib, small amounts of black powder, and smokeless powder, which constitutes an igniter. The starter cartridge is used to activate a mechanical starter for jet engines.

(e) Propellant explosives, Class B, are solid chemicals or solid chemical mixtures which function by rapid combustion

of successive layers, generally with little or no smoke. The combustion is controlled by composition, size, and form of grain. Any propellant explosive is Class B which fails to detonate in five trials when tested in the packages in which it is offered for shipment. In conducting the test, one propellant container shall be surrounded by inert loaded containers of the same weight, including one inert container placed on top of the propellant container. The propellant shall be ignited by means of a commercial electric squib placed within 4 inches of the bottom of the container. The presence of a crater and absence of flame shall be considered as evidence of detonation. Propellant explosives, Class B, include smokeless powder for small arms, smokeless powder for cannon, smokeless powder or solid propellant explosives for rockets, jet thrust units, or other devices. Black powder is not included in this classification and is defined in $ 146.20-7 (a). Fire extinguisher charges containing not to exceed 50 grains of propellant explosives per unit are exempt from the regulations in this part. (CGFR 52–8, 17 F. R. 6464, July 17, 1952, as amended by CGFR 54–16, 19 F. R. 4929, Aug. 6, 1954; CGFR 56-29, 21 F. R. 7055, Sept. 20, 1956; CGFR 57-33, 22 F. R. 8572, Oct. 29, 1957; CGFR 57-49, 22 F. R. 10060, Dec. 14, 1957)

§ 146.20-11 Class C explosives. Class C explosives are defined as certain types of manufactured articles which contain Class A, or Class B explosives, or both, as components but in restricted quantities, and certain types of fireworks. These explosives are further specifically described as:

(a) Small arms ammunition is fixed ammunition consisting of a metallic composition or paper cartridge case, a primer, and a propelling charge, with or without bullet, shot, tear gas material, tracer components, or incendiary compositions or mixtures, but not including bullets loaded with high explosives, and is further limited to the following:

(1) Ammunition designed to be fired from a pistol, revolver, rifle or shotgun held by the hand or to the shoulder.

(2) Ammunition of caliber less than .75 designed to be fired from machine guns.

(3) Blank cartridges including canopy remover cartridges, starter cartridges,

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and seat ejector cartridges, containing not more than 250 grains of propellant powder.

(b) Explosive cable cutters are used for cutting cables, etc. They consist of a metal device containing a knife-edged component which is propelled by a small charge of an explosive compound.

(c) Cordeau detonant fuse is a fuse containing a core of pentaerythrite tetranitrate or cyclotrimethylene-trinitramine not exceeding 400 grains per linear foot, overspun with tapes, yarns and plastics or waterproofing compounds. Wire countering is permissible.

(d) Percussion fuzes, combination fuzes, and time fuzes are devices designed to ignite powder charges of ammunition or to initiate an intermediate charge (booster) in projectiles, bombs, etc. When such fuzes are assembled with booster charges they are properly described "detonating fuzes" (see $ 146.20-7 (g) (3)).

(e) Tracer fuzes and tracers are devices which are attached to projectiles and contain a slow-burning composition to show the flight of projectiles at night.

(f) Cartridge bags, empty, with black powder igniters consist of empty bags having attached thereto an igniter composed of black powder.

(g) Igniters consist of fiberboard, plastic, paper or metal tubes containing a small quantity of igniting compound which is ignited by the action of a primer, pull wire or scratch composition.

(h) Delay electric igniters consist of small metal tubes containing a wire bridge in contact with a small quantity of ignition compound. The ignition compound is in contact with or in close proximity to a short piece of safety fuse.

(i) Electric squibs consist of small tubes or blocks containing a small quantity of ignition compound in contact with a wire bridge.

(j) Fuse lighters and fuse igniters are small cylindrical hollow pasteboard or metal tubes containing an igniting composition in one end, the other end being open to permit it to be placed on safety fuse.

(k) Safety Squibs are small paper tubes containing a small quantity of black powder. One end of each tube is usually twisted and tipped with sulfur.

(1) Instantaneous fuse is cotton yarn impregnated with meal powder. Each outside container shall be plainly marked "Instantaneous Fuse".

(m) Primers are devices used to ignite the powder charges of ammunition or the black powder bursting charges of projectiles. For small-arms ammunition, the primers are “small-arms primers" or “percussion caps”.

(n) Safety fuse consists of a core of black powder overspun with yarns, tapes, and/or waterproofing compounds. Each outside container shall be plainly marked "Safety Fuse".

(0) Toy paper caps, consisting of paper cap ammunition for toy pistols, in sheets, strips, rolls, or individual caps, must not contain more than an average of twenty-five hundredths of a grain of explosive composition per cap and must be packed in inside packages constructed of cardboard not less than 0.013 inch in thickness, metal not less than 0.008 inch in thickness, or noncombustible plastic not less than 0.15 inch in thickness, which shall provide a complete enclosure and the minimum dimensions of each side or end of such package shall be not less than 18 inch in height. Unless greater weight of composition is approved by the Bureau of Explosives, the number of caps in these inside packages shall be limited so that not more than 10 grains of explosive composition shall be packed into 1 cubic inch of space and not exceeding 17.5 grains of the explosive composition of toy caps shall be packed in any inside container. These inner containers must be packed in outside containers as specified in $ 146.20–300.

(p) Explosive rivets, each containing not more than 375 milligrams of explosive composition, are exempt from speci. fication packaging and labeling requirements when packed in pasteboard or other inside boxes in securely closed strong wooden boxes, fiberboard boxes or metal containers. Each outside container must be marked "Explosive Rivets."

(q) Common fireworks are fireworks devices suitable for use by the public and designed primarily to produce visible effects by combustion. Some small devices designed to produce audible effects are also included in this class. The types, sizes and amount of pyrotechnic

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