The Student's Elements of Geology

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J. Murray, 1885 - Geology - 641 pages
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Page 233 - Pure chalk, of nearly uniform aspect and composition, is met with in a north-west and south-east direction, from the north of Ireland to the Crimea, a distance of about 1140 geographical miles; and in an opposite direction it extends from the south of Sweden to the south of Bordeaux, a distance of about 840 geographical miles.
Page 518 - He remarks that every mass of clay or mud is divided and subdivided by surfaces among which the cohesion is comparatively small. On being subjected to pressure, such masses yield and spread out in the direction of least resistance, small nodules, become converted into...
Page 279 - The regular and uniform preservation of this thin bed of black earth over a distance of many miles, shows that the change from dry land to the state of a freshwater lake or estuary, was not accompanied by any violent denudation, or rush of water, since the loose black earth, together with the trees which lay prostrate on its surface, must inevitably have been swept away had any such violent catastrophe then taken place.
Page 51 - German geologists, streichen signifying to extend, to have a certain direction. Dip and strike may be aptly illustrated by a row of houses running east and west, the long ridge of the roof representing the strike of the stratum of slates, which dip on one side to the north, and on the other to the south.
Page 224 - ... formation occupies a middle place in the Eocene series, we are struck with the comparatively modern date to which some of the greatest revolutions in the physical geography of Europe, Asia, and northern Africa must be referred. All the mountain chains, such as the Alps, Pyrenees, Carpathians, and Himalayas, into the composition of whose central and loftiest parts the nummulitic strata enter bodily, could have had no existence till after the middle Eocene period."— Manual, p. 232. A still more...
Page 21 - The upper valve is almost invariably wanting, though occasionally found in a perfect state of preservation in the white chalk at some distance. In this case, we see clearly that the sea-urchin first lived from youth to age, then died and lost its spines, which were carried away. Then the young Crania adhered to the bared shell, grew and perished in its turn; after which, the upper valve was separated from the lower, before the Echinus became enveloped in chalky mud.
Page 364 - The lecturer thinks this enigma may be solved, by attending to what is now taking place in deltas. The dense growth of reeds and herbage which encompasses the margins of forestcovered swamps in the valley and delta of the Mississippi, is such that the fluviatile waters in passing through them are filtered and made to clear themselves entirely before they reach the areas in which vegetable matter may accumulate for centuries, forming coal if the climate be favourable.
Page 252 - ... regard to its parallelism with those of Europe, where so much has been written on the subject of the various members of the Cretaceous group. Sir Charles Lyell says that the New Jersey "strata consist chiefly of greensand and green marl, with an overlying...
Page 6 - In some cases, dark limestones, replete with shells and corals, have been turned into white statuary marble, and hard clays, containing vegetable or other remains, into slates called mica-schist or hornblende-schist, every vestige of the organic bodies having been obliterated.
Page 83 - the Mississippi as our example. For that river drains a country equal to more than half the continent of Europe, extends through twenty degrees of latitude, and therefore through regions enjoying a great variety of climate ; and some of its tributaries descend from mountains of great height. The Mississippi is also more likely to afford us a fair test of ordinary denudation, because, unlike the St. Lawrence and its tributaries, there are no great lakes in which the fluviatile sediment is thrown...

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