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monwealth can consist. For, “One man,” saith Philo, “though he have never so much alacrity and vigour in body and mind, cannot be sufficient to undergo the greatness and the multitude of the businesses, which every day do flow one upon the neck of another, unless they have coadjutors, chosen all of them out of the best, men of known wisdom, courage, justice, piety; and who not only are free from pride, but abhor it likewise as an hateful and exceeding great evil: for such men are most fit helpers and assistants to a good and worthy prince.” For proof whereof he giveth an instance in Moses himself, who although he were a man "mighty' in words and in deeds,” and “going in this his might,” (as God in another place biddeth Gideon to do) did for a time judge Israel all alone; yet mere necessity forced him in the end to profess unto the people : “Ih am not able to bear you myself alone : Howi can I myself alone bear your cumbrance, and your burthen, and your strife?" whereupon “het took the chief of their tribes, wise men and known, and made them heads over the people, and officers among their tribes."

XXIV. And yet in his wisdom foreseeing withal, that these, as many as they were, could not be able to go through with the work, nor retain the people in due obedience, without the support of a supreme governor, before his departure out of this life he presenteth God with this petition: “Let' the Lord, the God of the spirits of all

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"Ανευ αρχόντων αδύνατον είναι πόλιν. Αrist. polit. lib. 4. cap. 4. Τών μεν γάρ αναγκαίων αρχών χωρίς αδύνατον είναι πόλιν. Αrist. polit. lib. 6. cap. 8.

• Είς γάρ ουκ αν εξαρκέσαι, κάν προθυμότατος ή και πάντως ερρωμενέστατος εκάτερον σώμα και ψυχήν, προς τα μεγέθη και πλήθη των πραγμάτων, επί τη φορά των επεισχεομένων καθ' εκάστην ημέραν αλλαχόθεν άλλων, ει μη τους συλλεψομένους έχoι πάντας άριστίνδην επιλεγμένους, φρονήσει, δυνάμει, δικαιοσύνη, θεοσεβεία, τώ μή μόνον εκτρέπεσθαι, αλλά και μισείν ώς εχθρόν και μέγιστον κακόν, αλαζονείαν βοηθοί γάρ ούτοι και παραστάται γένοιντ' αν ανδρί καλή και αγαθά τα κοινά έπηχθισμένω, συνεπικουφίζειν και επελαφρίζειν επιτηδειότατοι. Ρhilo, in libro de creatione principis. | Acts, chap. 7. ver. 22.

& Judges, chap. 6. ver. 14. Deut. chap. 1. ver. 9.

i Id. ibid. ver. 12. * Deut. chap. 1. ver. 15. with Exod. chap. 18. ver. 25.

Num. chap. 27. ver. 16, 17.

fesh, set a man over the congregation, which may go out before them, and which may go in before them, and which may lead them out, and which may bring them in; that the congregation of the Lord be not as sheep which have no shepherd :” and God thereupon giveth order unto bim, that he should “put" some of his honour upon Joshua, that all the congregation of the children of Israel might be obedient:" which honour or regal sovereignty (for Moseso had no less) how fully Joshua did enjoy after his decease, this profession then made by the people may sufficiently testify : “ AllP that thou commandest us, we will do, and whithersoever thou sendest us we will go. According as we hearkened unto Moses, so will we hearken unto thee: only the Lord thy God be with thee, as he was with Moses. Whosoever he be, that doth rebel against thy commandment, and will not hearken unto thy words in all that thou commandest him, he shall be put to death: only be strong and of a good courage.” And this ratification thereof made by God himself not long after: “On that day, the Lord magnified Joshua in the sight of all Israel, and they feared him as they feared Moses all the days of his life.”

XXV. The supreme governor therefore hath not more need of the subordinate magistrates for his assistance, than they have of him to give them life and motion: no state being possibly able to subsist, unless a supremacy

of power be placed in some head, from whence it may be derived through all the parts of the body politic. A lively manifestation of this we have from the old Persians', who for five days together, after the decease of their king, permitted the people to live lawless; that after the experience of the slaughters, rapines, and other outrages committed in that short interval, they might learn to hold their kings in more high esteem. Which bringeth some light to that which we meet with so oft in the book of Judges, and wherewith the last chapter of that. sacred history is concluded: “In those days there was no king in Israel, every man did that which was right in his own eyes.” In the same chapter we read that there were then “the elders of the congregation” in the commonwealth ; and in the chapter going before, that zealous Phineas stood high priest before the ark in those days. But the want of a king, that is, of one that had the supreme managing of the sword of justice, is assigned to be the cause of all this confusion and disorder ; who, being in the Scripture termed The' breath of our nostrils," as the great army of Alexander doth profess to the same effect in Curtius, that "they all did live by that one man's breath, or spirit ;" we may easily thence infer, that, as in the natural body, the breath being stopped, life can no longer be continued; so, the power of the supreme governor being taken away, all vital influence into the rest of the body civil must cease therewith, and the whole state of necessity suffer a dissolution. And therefore, as Florus writeth of the constitution of the Roman empire under Cæsar Augustus, that “ No doubt it could never have otherwise conjoined and consented together, unless it had been governed by the beck of one ruler, as by a kind of soul and mind :" so, touching the continuation thereof, Seneca in like man

m See 1 Kings, chap. 22. ver. 17. n Num. chap. 27. ver. 20.
• Gen. chap. 36. ver. 31. wih Deut. chap. 33. ver. 5.
P Jos. chap. 1. ver. 16, 17, 18.
9 Jos. chap. 4. ver. 14.

* 'Εντεύθεν και οι Περσών χαρίεντες νόμον έχoυσι, βασιλέως παρ' αυτοίς τελευτήσαντος, πέντε τάς έφεξής ημέρας ανομίαν άγειν ουκ υπέρ του δυστυχείν, αλλ' υπέρ του έργα μαθείν ήλίκον κακόν έστιν ή ανομία (σφαγάς και άρπαγας, και εί τι χειρόν έστιν επάγουσα) ίνα πιστότεροι των βασιλέων φύλακες γένωνται. . Sext. Empir. adversus Mathematicos, lib. 2. Vide et Serinum apud Stobæum, serm. 42.

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Judges, chap. 21. ver. 16.

• Ibid. chap. 20. ver. 28. u Lament, chap. 4. ver. 20.

: "Armatus exercitus regiam obsedit, confessus omnes unius spirito vivere." Q. Curtius, lib. 9. cap. 11.

y "Ad Octavium Cæsarem Augustum summa rerum rediit: qui sapientia sua atque solertia perculsum undique et perturbatum ordinavit imperii corpus. Quod ita haud dubie nunquam coire et consentire potuisset, nisi unius præsidis nutu quasi anima et mente regeretur.” L. Florus, lib. 4. cap. 3.

ner addeth : “ This infinite multitude which environs one man's soul, is by his spirit governed, and by his reason guided ; which otherwise would oppress and break herself with her own force, if by his counsel she were not sustained." For, “ He is the bond which holds fast the state together, he is that vital breath which so many thousands draw in; who otherwise as a lifeless and unwieldy load would prove a booty, if that soul of the empire were ta

ken away.

The king being safe, one mind unites them all;
He gone, their league dissolveth, and they fall.

XXVI. Where further also it is to be considered, that the placing of the supremacy of civil power (which the Latins call majesty, the Grecians κύριον πολίτευμα, κυρίαν ápxrv, and äkpav govolav) in some certain head, is so essential to all states of government, that from it the formal difference ariseth of all particular kinds thereof. For, although in Switzerland, for example, the cantons have their several magistrates, who during the time of their government order all things among the people, yet are they not an aristocracy for that, but a mere democracy; because these officers derive their authority wholly from the people, and to them or their deputies they are to give an account of the exercise thereof. And, although in the commonwealth of Venice there be but one duke, yet, because this person is not invested with the supreme power of government, that state is nothing less than monarchical. The

? " Hæc immensa multitudo, unius animæ circumdata, illius spiritu regitur, illius ratione flectitur; pressura se ac fractura viribus suis, nisi consilio sustineretur.” Seneca de Clementia, lib. 1. cap. 3.

a " Ille est enim vinculum, per quod respublica cohæret; ille spiritus vitalis, quem hæc tot millia trahunt; nihil ipsa per se futura nisi onus et præda, si mens illa imperii subtrahatur. Rege incolumi mens omnibus una est; Amisso rupere fidem" Seneca de Clementia, lib. 1. cap. 4. Versus autem Virg. sunt lib. 4. Georg. de apibus, quorum sententiam hoc eodem libro, cap. 19. ita expressit idem Seneca, “ Amisso rege totum dilabitur examen.”

• Imperii summam vim ipsam nunquam habuit, sed imaginem tantum quandam et umbram imperii, plus minusve, pro temporum varietate.” Nicol. Crass. Not. 15. in Donat. Jannot. de rep. Venet.


Lacedemonians had two kings (for failing) and both of them hereditary, descending from the race of Hercules, and yet that hindered nothing at all their aristocracy ; because they being subject to the oversight and control of the Ephori, were but equivocal kings, such in name', but not in deed. For, to speak properly, by the name of a king, as Gregory Nyssen noteth, we understand such an one as is “hisd own master, and hath no other master beside :" who hath “absolute power in himself," and is no way subject to the control of any other. And therefore when Anthony was so much pressed by his Cleopatra to call Herod unto question, he answered: “It was not fitting a king should give account of what he did in his government, for he should be in effect no king at all."

XXVII. On the other side, in our high court of parliament, although the knights, citizens and burgesses (representing the whole body of the commons) bear the shew of a little democracy among us, and the lords and nobles, (as the optimates of the kingdom) of an aristocracy; yet our government is a free monarchy notwithstanding: because the supreme authority resteth neither in the one nor in the other, (either severally or jointly) but solely in the person of the king, at whose pleasures they are assembled, and without whose royal assent nothing they conclude on can be a law forceable to bind the subjects. Whereupon by a special act of the same great court it is

• As other inferior princes likewise named, Isai. chap. 10. ver. 8. Jerem. chap. 19. ver. 3. Psalm 105. ver. 30. So Eustathius in Homer. Odyss. a. Σημείωσαι δε ότι ου μόνον "Ομηρος βασιλείς λέγει τους ενδόξους και βασιλικούς, αλλά και οι μετ' αυτόν. et Proclus, in Ηesiod. "Εργων α. Βασιλήας τους δικαστές και τους άρχοντας λέγει: ούτω γαρ αυτούς εκάλουν οι παλαιοί. .

ο Αυτοκράτορα και αδέσποτον τον βασιλέα καλούμεν. Greg. Nyssen. contra Eunom. lib. 1.

e Tò avro patés te kai dvapxov. Greg. Nyssen. contra Eunom. lib. I.

1 Ου γαρ έφη καλώς έχειν 'Αντώνιος, βασιλέα περί των κατά την αρχήν γεγενημένων ευθύνας απαιτείν' ούτως γάρ αν ουδέ βασιλεύς είναι. Joseph. antiqu. lib. 15. cap. 14.

& Quis tantæ est authoritatis ut nolentem principein possit ad convocandos patres cæterosque proceres coarctare? Justinian. Novel. 23.

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