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with the gloryand powerf of God, are styled gods', and “the sons of God;" so the princes and judges of the earth have frequently the title of gods" in holy Wrtt: and in one place, of gods, and the sons of God both together. “IW have said, ye are gods, and all sons of the most High.” Which in the Chaldee paraphrast is thus rendered: “ Behold, ye are reputed as angels, and all of you as it were angels of the most High.” Such affinity in this respect there is between* those celestial “spirits", sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation," and those terrestrial “angels? of God,” who are “ hisa ministers to us for good ;" even God'sb ministers continually attending upon this very thing," as St. Paul witnesseth. With whom among the heathen also Plutarch agreeth fully, where he maketh the government of a kingdom to be "a ministration of God," and affirmeth magistrates to “ bed God's ministers for the care and welfare of mankind, either in distribution of good things not yet had, or in the preservation of good things not yet enjoyed."

XXI. Now these higher powers, unto whom it is "the will of God” we should “submit ourselves for his sake," are distinguished by St. Peter into two ranks, the supreme and the subordinate; the king', the supreme;

9 Luke, chap. 2. ver. 9.

Mer' ayyédwv duvápeus autoū. 2 Thess. chap. 1. ver. 7. • Psalm 8. ver. 5. with Heb. chap. 2. ver. 7, and Psalm 97. ver. 7. with Heb. chap. 1. ver. 6.

Job, chap. 1. ver. and chap. 2. ver. 1. and chap. 38. ver. 7. u Exod. chap. 21. ver. 6. and chap. 22. ver. 8, 9. 28. Psalm 82. ver. 1. » Psalm 82, ver. 6. * . . .

και Λειτουργικά πνεύματα εις διακονίαν αποστελλόμενα. Ηeb. chap. 1. ver. 14.

2 2 Sam, chap. 19. ver. 27.
και θεού γάρ διάκονος εστί σοι εις το αγαθόν. Rom. chap. 13. ver. 4.

Λειτουργοί γάρ θεού εισιν, εις αυτό τούτο προσκαρτερούντες. Yanpegíay Peoũ Back Útuv nyobuevos. Plutarch. in Numa. 1 Υπηρετείν θεώ πρός ανθρώπων επιμέλειαν και σωτηρίαν, όπως αν θεός δίδωσιν ανθρώπους καλών και αγαθών, τα μεν νέμωσι, τα δε φυλάττωσι. Plutarch. ad principem indoctum. e i Peter, chap. 2. ver. 13. 15. " Egregium culmen habentem,” as Didymus Alexandrinus here noteth.


the subordinate, such governors as are “sent by ha for the punishment of evil doers, and the praise of the that do well:" sent by the king, I mean, it being the fice of him that hath the highest and greatest place government, to choose such assistants as shall rule togethe with him in the administration of those things which bo long to the public utility;" so saith Philo : and after hin Libanius to the emperor of his time, “Indeed", if it were possible that your own bodies might be every where, there would be no need that any magistrates should be sent by you into the provinces, you yourselves being able to administer justice unto all, as the sun is sufficient to give light unto them : but seeing that cannot be, you govern them by others, and by their sentence you do determine justice.” Which made St. Paul profess before Festus the governor, sitting at Cæsarea upon the bench, that he stood (not at his, but) at “ Cæsar's judgment seat;" the other supplying his room only in that present place of judicature. The compiler of the apostolical constitutions (personating those times wherein the civil government stood opposite to the Christian faith) doth thus express this distribution: “ Thouk shalt fear the king, considering that he is the election (or ordinance) of the Lord: thou shalt honour his magistrates as the ministers of God, for they are revengers of all iniquity.” Where for St. Peter's vynuóνες, it is observable that he useth the word άρχοντες, which

και ο

'Επ’ άλλοισι δ' άλλοι μεγάλοι, το δ' έσχατον κορυφούται βασιλεύσι. Pindar. Olymp. 1. sub fin.

8 Προσήκει τη της ανωτάτω και μεγίστης αρχής αξιωθέντι αιρείσθαι διαδόχους, οι συνάρξουσι και συνδικάσουσι, και τ' άλλα όσα κοινωφελή συνδιοικήσουσιν. Ρhilo in libro de creatione principis.

Ει μεν ούν οίοντ' ήν είναι πανταχού τα υμέτερα σώματα, των αρχώντων ουδέν αν τούτων έδει των επί τα έθνη παρ' υμών πεμπομένων, άπασιν υμών τους δικαζομένοις αποχρώντων, ώσπερ αυτής της του ηλίου λαμπηδόνος. έπει δε τούτο ουχ οίόντε δι' ετέρων αυτούς έφεστήκατε, διά της εκείνων γνώμης ύμείς τάς ψήφους τίθεσθε. Libanius, in ora. κατά των προσεδρευόντων τοίς άρχουσι. 1 Acts, chap. 25. ver. 6. 10.

• Τον βασιλέα φοβηθήση, ειδώς ότι του κυρίου εστιν ή χειροτονία, τους άρχοντας αυτού τιμήσεις ως λειτουργούς θεού, έκδικοι γάρ εισι πάση άδιviag. Const. apostolic. lib. 7. cap. 17.

in the singular commonly denotes the prince, in the plural magistrates : a term which in the propriety of the Latin tongue belongs to subaltern officers, and doth not comprehend the prince himself, whose office it is to “redress the unjust actions of the magistrates, and to make void whatsoever ought not to have been done by them." And herein he seemeth to make the same distinction between βασιλεύς and άρχοντες, the king and magistrates, which Dio Chrysostomus doth between Baoilsia and apx",

áoxn", or magistracy, is called a legal administration of men according to the law : Baoilεía, or regality, is such a government as is not subject to the control of any. The law is the decree of the king. A tyranny, which is contrary to these, is a violent and illegal usage of men by one that is of greater strength.”

XXII. For the clearer understanding whereof we may call to remembrance that difference which king James of never-dying memory, in the first book of his Basilicon Doron (out of Plato and Aristotle, the great masters of political learning) doth make between a lawful king and a tyrant: the words of that elegant writer are to this effect: "That the one acknowledgeth himself ordained for his people, having received from God a burthen of government, whereof he must be accountable; the other thinketh his people ordained for him, a prey to his passions and inordinate appetites, as the fruits of his magnanimity; and therefore that a good king, thinking his highest honour to consist in the due discharge of his calling, employeth all his study and pains to procure and maintain, by the

I“ Intercedere iniquitatibus magistratuum, infectumque reddere quicquid fieri non oportuerit. Plin. Panegyric. ad Trajan.

Π. Λέγεται γάρ ή μεν αρχή νόμιμος ανθρώπων διοίκησης κατά νόμον. Βασιλεία δε ανυπεύθυνος αρχή. Ο δε νόμος βασιλέως δόγμα. Ο δε τύραννος, και η τύραννις, εναντίον τούτοις, βίαιος και παράνομος χρήσης avOpúrwv ToŨ OOKOūvtOS ioxúelv aléov. Dio Chrysost. in orat. 3. de regno. Ubi vocabuli dokOūvtoç usum pleonasticum recte observat vir doctissimus Joannes Pricæus : ut etiam in loco illo Marci, cap. 10. ver. 42. oi dokoŪVTES áp xelv tūv čovūv, pro quo Matt. cap. 20. ver. 25. simpliciter legitur, oi äpxovτες των εθνών. .

making and execution of good laws, the welfare and peace of his people.”

XXIII. For the making of laws, whereof the force and penalty doth generally reach unto the whole kingdom, must be an act of the prince: and therefore where it is said, Psalm 60. ver. 7. Judah is my law-giver,” the Greek aud vulgar Latin translate it, “Judah is my king," agreeable to that in 1 Chron. chap. 5. ver. 2. “ Of Judah came the prince.” For “Ton this end,” saith Justinian, “God hath settled regal power among men, that by ordering upon all occasions such things as are needful, it should both supply the uncertainty of human nature, and conclude it within the bounds of certain laws." And St. Augustine to the same purpose: “The divine right we have in the Scriptures, the human right in the laws of kings; for human rights God hath distributed to mankind by the emperors and kings of this world, and this humano right is in the power of the kings of the earth." Hitherto also belongeth that of Alexius Comnenus:“ The' regal office is nothing else but a legal administration of things: the law is that which preserveth the indemnity of the commonwealth, removing far and expelling such things as are prejudicial to the civil state ; and the power of making the laws is committed to the king :” and that of Plutarch long before him, “ Justices is the end of the law, the law a work of the prince, and the prince the image of God."

η Βασιλείαν ο θεός διά τούτο καθήκεν εις ανθρώπους, όπως αν τοϊς δεομένοις αεί τι διατάττουσα την της ανθρωπίνης φύσεως αοριστίαν αναπληροί τε, και ρητοίς περικλείοι νομοίς τε. Cod. de vet. jur. enucl. lib. 3. Græc.

O “ Divinum jus in Scripturis habemus, humanum jus in legibus regum." August, in Joan. tract. 6.

p"Ipsa jura humana per imperatores et reges seculi Deus distribuit generi humano." August. in Joan. tract. 6.

9 Jus humanum in potestate regum est terræ. August. in epist. 93. ad Vincentium.

"Μηδέν άλλο η βασιλεία ή έννομος επιστασία έστι. νόμοι δε οι την πο· λιτείαν τηρούντες αδιαλώβητον, πόρρω απωθούντες τα το πολίτευμα καταβλάπτοντα, ανείται δε και το νομοθετείν βασιλλεύσιν. Αlex. Comnen. Novel. de solutione sponsalium.

* Δίκη νόμου τέλος έστιν, νόμος δε άρχοντος έργον, άρχων δε είκων Okoð. Plutarch. ad principem indoctum.

The ăoxwv, or prince, makes the laws, not to himself, but to his subjects (to whom he standeth no way accountable for his own not observing any of them, as hereafter shall more fully be declared), the ao xovtes judge and govern others according to the prescript of those laws, being themselves also obnoxious to them as well as other subjects. For, “ magistrates are the ministers, judges the interpreters of the laws,” saith Tully: and “the laws do govern the magistrates no less than the magistrates do the people.” To the maker of the law, Dio (in the place alleged) attributes Baoilsiav, or regal sovereignty, which by him, and Suidast out of him, is defined to be " ávuteúduvog áo x", a government without check,” whereof no account is to be rendered unto any man: to the ministers of the law he ascribeth áoxnv simply; by which word likewise the scholiasty of Aristophanes, and Suidas’ also from him, observe the ministerial and inferior government most usually to be understood ; for "in every kingdom there are many ápxai, but under one king,” saith Epiphanius. “The princes digged the well, the nobles of the people digged it by direction of the law giver, with their staves," was a part of the song of Israel: and“ Moses comanded us a law, even the inheritance of the congregation of Jacob: and he was king in Jeshurun, when the heads of the people and the tribes of Israel were gathered together.” Here Moses is the law giver and king in Israel: the princes and heads of the people, those ão xovtec and åpxaż, without which Aristotled so oft tells us it is impossible a com

! "Legum ministri magistratus, legum interpretes judices ; legum denique id. circo omnes servi sumus, ut liberi esse possumus.” Cicero pro A. Cluentio.

U " Ut magistratibus leges, ita populo præsunt magistratus." Cicero init. lib. 3. de legibus.

& Suidas in Βασιλεία.

Y Κοινότερον και τας τοιαύτας ψιλάς επιστασίας και λειτουργίας αρχάς Eleyov, kai Bovdeñoai (id est, jus dicere) ápxàs. Schol. in Aristoph. Plut. pag. 91. edit. Græco-Lat. anno 1607.

2 Suidas in 'Apxelv.

Καθ' εκάστην βασιλείαν πολλαι αρχαι, αλλ' υφ' ένα βασιλέα. Epiphan. contra Archont. hæres. 40. • Num. chap. 21. ver. 18.

c Deut. chap. 33. ver. 4, 5. 'Avayxaiov ydp sivai rivas ápxàs. Aristot, politic. lib. 3. cap. 12. VOL. XI.


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