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first mother Eve: “ Thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee,” (as the apostle out of that law infers) commanded woman to “be in subjection,” and thereby established an headship in every single family: so, after the posterity of Eve began to be distinguished into families, the same God, by using the like speech to Cain concerning his brother Abel, “Untoh thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him," may seem to have constituted a principality in one man over divers families, and thereby laid the foundation of political government; the kingdom (as it appeareth by the ordinaryk practice of the succeeding times) together with the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power, (the two peculiar characters thereof) being an honour that descended upon the first-born and not upon the younger brother.
XV. Although it may not be denied, but that (without any such special direction) the very light of nature would have enforced men at first to conjoin many families into one body of a civil society, and to submit themselves to the government of some superior: for, otherwise a dissolution of mankind would quickly ensue, and all come to ruin. To this purpose among the Hebrews that of Rabbi Hananiah, one of their chief priests, is much remembered : 'Pray' for the peace,” or prosperity, “ of the kingdom ; for, if it were not for fear of authority, every one would swallow down quick his neighbour :” which is but an explication of that which a far better author long before delivered touching the Babylonian monarchy, (which was adverse to the religion of the Jews, as that under which Hananiah lived ;) “Seekm the peace of the city whither I have caused you to be carried away captives, and pray unto the Lord for it; for in the peace thereof shall ye have peace.” For the Christians, you may hear St. Chry
I Gen. chap. 3. ver. 16.
1 Cor. chap. 14. ver. 34. b Gen. chap. 4. ver. 7. i Vide D. Heinsii exercitat. sacr. lib. 7. cap. 8. in 1 Cor. cap. 11. ver. 10.
Gen. chap. 49. ver. 3. 2 Chron. chap. 21. ver. 3.
Pirke הוי מתפלל בשלומה של מלכות שאלמלא מוראה איש את רעהו חיים בלעו
Abhoth cap. 3. sec. 2.
m Jer. chap. 29. ver. 7.
sostom speak: “Take away the higher powers, and all goes to wreck; neither will city, nor country, nor family, nor assembly, nor ought else stand; the stronger will?devour the weaker, and all things be turned upside down." And Cicero, if you please, for the heathen: “Withouto government neither house, nor city, nor nation, nor mankind, nor nature, nor the world itself could consist.”
XVI. True it is, that in several states there are admitted several forms of government, the supreme authority being somewhere placed in the person of one, which maketh a monarchy; otherwhere in some of the chief, which they call an aristocracy; and somewhere in the whole body of the people, from whence ariseth a democracy. Likewise of monarchs themselves, some come in by election, some by hereditary succession : and in all these governments the subordinate magistrates are raised, either by the immediate appointment of the supreme, or by the election of such persons or corporations as they are pleased to communicate that power unto.
XVII. If this be so, and that nature seeketh always to preserve itself, we may justly conclude, that magistracy is rooted in the law of nature, and so in the author of nature, that is, God himself. To which purpose, for the general, it is noted by Plutarch, that "A9 governor politic is by nature always the prince of the commonwealth, as the master bee is amongst the bees:" and by Aristides, that “ All' governors are by nature superior to those that are under their command ;" that “ This is a law set by nature, that the inferior should yield obedience to the superior ; and if any man should account the abrogation of this law to be a sign of liberty, he did deceive himself; the law of nature being hereby inverted, which requireth us to yield unto the eminency of our superiors, and to live according to the direction of our governors." And for the regal authority in particular, Seneca doth tell us, that "Nature" did first find out a king :" Polybius, that “Without any art, and by the guidance of nature itself a monarchy was first of all constituted :" Diotogenes the Pythagorean, that “ Of those which by nature are most honorable, the best indeed is God, but upon earth and among men, the king :" Yea, and Aristotle himself too, that “ By nature not only the father hath the rule over his children, but also the king over those who are within his kingdom.”
• Καν ανέλας τας αρχάς, πάντα οιχήσεται και ου πόλεις, χώρα, ουκ οίκία, ουκ αγορά, ούκ άλλο ουδέν στήσεται, αλλά πάντα ανατραπήσεται, των δυνατοτέρων τους ασθενεστέρους καταπινόντων. . Chrysost. in epist. ad Dom. homil. 23. tom. 9. pag. 688. Vide etiam tom. 5. pag. 496. tom. 12. pag. 311. tom. 2. pag. 74.
O “Sine imperio nec domus ulla, nec civitas, nec gens, nec hominum universum genus stare, nec rerum natura omnis, nec ipse mundus potest.” Cic. 3. de legib. in initio.
p"Cunctas nationes et urbes, aut populus, aut primores, aut singuli regunt." Tacit. annal. lib. 4. 'Ανάγκη δ' είναι κύριον ή ένα, ή ολίγους, ή τους πολ. doús. Aristot. Polit. lib. 3. cap. 5.
4 Φύσει μεν ούν άρχων αεί πόλεως και πολιτικός, ώσπερ ηγεμών έν μελίτTais. Plutarch, in præcept. gerend. reip.
XVIII. But however in the constitution of these man's hand may be an instrument, yet being once constituted, whether supreme or subordinate, in all of them we must respect the commission received by them from the founder of “all rule, authority and power” at the beginning, and the resumer thereof into his own hands
* Πάντες μεν ούν άρχοντες φύσει κρείττους των υπ' αυτούς. Aristid. in orat. Platon, 1. tom. 3. edit. Græco-Lat. in 8. pag. 76.
8 Νόμος γάρ έστιν ούτος φύσει κείμενος, ως αληθώς υπό των κρειττόνων καταδειχθείς ακούειν τον ήττα του κρείττονος κάν τις ελευθερίας σύμβολον ποιήται το διαφθείρειν τον νόμον, αυτόν εξαπατά. Aristid. in orat. de concordia ad Rhodios, tom. 2. pag. 391.
* "Οτι άξιοϊς μεταβάλλειν τον της φύσεως νόμον, δς κελεύει την των κρειττόνων υπερβολήν ανέχεσθαι, και ζήν προς το ηγούμενον. Aristid. in orat. de Paraphthegm. tom. 3. pag. 673, 674.
u “Natura commenta est regem." Senec. de Clemen. lib. 1. cap. 19.
* Πρώτου μεν ούν ακατασκεύως και φυσικώς συνίσταται μοναρχία. . Polyb. hist. lib. 6.
x Τών μέν φύσει τιμιωτάτων άριστον ο θεός, των δε περί γάν και τως åvOpúrwc • Baoileuc. Diotog. apud Stobeum, serm. 46.
9 Φύσει τε γαρ αρχηγός πατήρ υιών, και πρόγονος εκγόνων, και βασιλεύς Tūv Baoilevouévwv. Arist. Ethic. Nicomach. lib. 8. cap. 13.
2 1 Cor. chap. 15. ver. 24.
again at the end of the world ; both because “ We make those things our own unto which we impart our authority;" and because in all power established upon earth there is represented unto us an image and superscription of that high eminency which is in him whom St. Paul worthily glorifieth with the style of “The blessed and ONLY Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords ; who only hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto, whom no man hath seen nor can see, to whom be honour and power everlasting. ” In which words it is not unworthy our observation, that the apostle nameth him the "only potentate,” in the same sense that he saith, he “ only hath immortality.” For, as angels and the souls of men have immortality indeed, yet not originally from themselves, but by his donation who only hath it absolutely in himself, without dependence upon any other: so are there other potentates also, yet such as hold of him in chief, who hath only all fulness of power in himself, and distributeth what proportion thereof he thinketh meet to those whom he hath intrusted with the government of this world ; according to the acknowledgment of King David, “Thine', O Lord, is the greatness, and the power, and the glory, and the victory, and the majesty ; for all that is in the heaven and in the earth is thine : thine is the kingdom, O Lord, and thou art exalted as head above all. Both riches and honour come of thee, and thou reignest over all, and in thine hand is power and might, and in thine hand it is to make great, and to give strength unto all.”
XIX. Why the woman ought to cover her head (that is, her face!) in the assembly, and not the man, St. Paul giveth this for a reason :“The man is the image and glory of God, but the woman is the glory of the man." If we respect either those inward perfections wherewith God endowed the soul at the beginning, as knowledge in the mind, “righteousness and true holiness" in the will; or that outward dominion which God granted to mankind over the other creatures; it cannot be denied but male and female both were created by God “inh his own image.” But if we consider them as they stand in mutual relation one unto the other, or as they are heads of the economical government ; the man being "head' of the woman," is the immediate image and glory of God, but the woman is the image and glory of the man, deriving all her power and splendor from him, as the moon doth from the sun, according to that of Justinian: “Thek wives receive lustre from their husband's rays;" and those solemn words which the women of Rome were taught to use at their nuptials, “Ubi tu Caius ego Caia," in effect this, “Where' thou art master, there am I to be mistress.”
* “Omnia nostra facimus quibus authoritatem nostram impertimur.” Gloss. in cap. 1. extr. de præsumptionib. et cap. 1. de transactionib. ex illo Justiniani imp. in c. de vet. jur. enunt. lib. 1. " Omnia merito nostra facimus, quia ex nobis omnis eis impertietur authoritas."
61 Tim. chap. 6. ver. 15, 16.
As in Jerem. chap. 13. ver. 3, 4. Esth. chap. 6. ver. 12. and 2 Sam. chap. 15. ver. 30. with chap. 19. ver. 21. “ Mitris et lanis quædam non velant caput, sed conligant; a fronte quidem protectæ, qua proprie autem caput est, nudæ." Tertullian. de veland. virgin. cap. ult. e 1 Cor. chap. 11. ver. 7.
XX. So, (to rise higher than household government) God in Scripture is made “them head of all principality and power;" both of the “principalities” and powers in heavenly places,” whose ministry he useth in the invisible, and of the “principalities and powers” here below, whose labours he employeth in the visible administration of the things of this world : unto both of which therefore he is pleased to impart as well his own name, as the title of his own children. For as angels, "the chief princes," invested
Col. chap. 3. ver. 99. & Ephes. chap. 4. ver. 24.
h Gen. chap. 1. ver. 27. 1 1 Cor. chap. 11. ver. 3.
* Αι γαμεται συνεκλάμπουσι ταϊς των συνοικούντων ακτίσι, τούτο αυ. taic toù vouov @idwrótog. Justin. Novel. 105.
1 "Όπου συ κύριος και οικοδεσπότης, και εγώ κυρία και οικοδέσποινα. Plutarch. in quæstionib. Romanis.
m Col. chap. 2. ver. 12. with 1 Pet, chap. 3. ver. 22. n Col. chap. 3. ver. 10.
• Tit. chap. 3. ver. 1. p Dan. chap, 10. ver. 13.