Page images
PDF
EPUB

restrictions, according to the quality and nature of the matter in hand: as, not to go further, in this self-same chapter of St. Peter, we are required to "honour" all men;" where yet we are not to think the apostle meant, that masters thereby are tied to honour their servants, or would any way oppose that which by David was delivered for a character of God's child : “In` whose eyes a vile person is contemned, but he honoureth them that fear the Lord :” but as Cajetan well expoundeth the place, “ Honour all men” that is, “every one according to his degree and merit.” As therefore that general rule of his must be limited by that special explication thereof deliFered by St. Paul: “ Give to all men their due, honour to whom honour is due:” so likewise this other precept of subjecting ourselves to all men, must receive the same restriction; as if it had been said, “ be subject to all men to whom subjection is due,” and that for God, and the conscience of the duty you owe unto him, who hath put you in subjection under them. Which differeth very little from the exposition given by Bede here: “ Everyd human creature, he saith, meaning every dignity of men, every person, every principality, to which the divine ordinance would have us subject; for that is it which he intendeth by saying, for God, because there is no power but from him alone."

VI. David Pareus (although otherwise no very great friend to the supreme power of kings) yet putteth us here in mind, that the “wordektioiç used in this text, doth lead

2 1 Pet. chap. 2. ver. 17. a Psalm 15. ver. 4.

b Unumquemque secundum gradum et ordinem. Caj. in 1 Pet. cap. 2. ver. 17.

c Rom. chap. 13. ver. 7.

d “Omni humanæ creaturæ, dicit, omni dignitati hominum, omni personæ, omni principatui, cui nos divina dispositio subdi voluerit; hoc est enim quod ait, propter Deum, quia non est potestas nisi a Deo.” Beda in 1 Pet. cap. 2. 6. Subditi estote omni humanæ creaturæ," id est, omnibus hominibus nobis præpositis. Haymo, in Rom. cap. 13.

€“ KTÍOews appellatio ad Deum primum authorem nos revocat. Etsi enim magistratus creari, hoc est, ordinari etiam ab hominibus dicuntur, tamen eorum

us to the consideration of God, the prime author of magistracy: For though magistrates”, thus his words run, “ are said to be created, that is ordained, by men, yet their first creator properly is God alone, unto whom only all creation primarily doth appertain.” For the fuller explication of which conception, these observations following may be taken into consideration; First, that this word ktloiç doth signify either a creation or a creature; by both which the holy writers (whose manner of speaking is here more to be respected than the language of any other authors) do express the work, not of any mortal man, but of the Almighty and ever-living God: for him alone, as the prime efficient of all, the Scripture honoureth with the style of Creator: and the answerable effect both of creation, as motus, and creature, as res motu facta, it ascribeth to him alone.

VII. Secondly, that this in the Scripture is not restrained to the first creation of all things only, but extended likewise to the works of God's providence, whether wrought by himself immediately, or by the intervention of other secondary causes. So the propagation of the species by the means of natural generation is accounted a continued creation; and God's blessings and judgments upon mankind, though others be used as his instruments in the effecting thereof, are said by him likewise to be created. “ I form the light," saith he," and create darkness; I make peace, and create evil: I the Lord do all these things. I have created the smith that bloweth the coals in the fire, and that bringeth forth an instrument for his work; and I have created the waster to destroy.” In which sense also the son of Syrach affirmeth “ husbandry to be created by the most High ;" both because the thing itself was at first ordained by him, and for the necessary upholding thereof XII. But let us admit too that it were so called “ an human ordinance” causally; because the particular forms of government were instituted by the choice and counsel of man, and the particular form of the creation of the governors were in man's appointment; as if the apostle had said, “ Submit yourselves unto your governors, by what ordinance or human creation soever they do hold that government, whether by succession, election, or howsoever;" yet, when with the very same breath he requireth this subjection to be performed“ dià Tòv Kúplov, for God," or “the Lord's sake,” he doth clearly intimate, that God is to be acknowledged the principal, though man be the instrumental, cause of their institution.

creator primus proprie est solus Deus, cui soli omnis creatio primo competit.” D. Pareus in appendice commentar. ad cap. Roman, dubio 3.

| Psalm 102. ver. 18. and Psalm 104. ver. 30. Ezek. chap. 21. ver. 30. and chap. 28. ver. 13. 15. Isaiah, chap. 45. ver. 7.

h Ibid. chap. 54. ver. 16. | rewpyiav ünÒ viotov értiouévnv. Ecclus. chap. 7. ver. 16.

XIII. The ministers of the Gospel, we see, receive their ordination from man's hand, and are appointed over their several flocks by man's election; and yet it is most true withal, that “God hath set them in the Church, Christy hath given” them, and “over” all the flock the holy Ghost hath made them overseers :" with whom our Saviour having promised “ to be alway, even unto the end of the world," as he was at the beginning with those first masterbuilders, which were apostles "not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father;" that which he speaketh of the first appertaineth no less unto the last : “ He that heareth you heareth me, and he that despiseth you despiseth me, and he that despiseth me despiseth him that sent me.”

XIV. The wife, we know, maketh choice of her husband, and the mutual consent of the parties makes up the matrimony; yet God it is that “joinetha them both together:" and the conjunction being once made, the wife by virtue thereof standeth bound to "submite herself unto her own husband as to the Lord.” And as God by saying to our

* 1 Cor. chap. 12. ver. 28.

y Ephes. chap. 4. ver. 11. 2 Acts, chap. 20. ver. 28.

a Matt. chap. 28. ver. 20. b Gal, chap. 1. ver. 1. © Luke, chap.'10. ver. 16, with John, chap. 13. ver. 20. • Matt. chap. 19. ver. 6.

e Ephes, chap. 5. ver. 22.

to men,

sacrifices for sins;" so every civil magistrate also taken from among men, is ordained for men in things pertaining

“ thatthey may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty." Whereupon the full meaning of the apostle Peter in this place should be: “ Submit yourselves to every creature,” or to every man', who is a creature constituted by God among and over men; “ for the Lord's sake," whose creature he is in that place of authority.

XI. Calvin®, Beza', and other of our later interpreters, do thus far also deliver their opinion, that the order of civil government is here called “an human ordinance," not because men ir vented it, but because it is proper to men; or (if you will have it in Pareus his expression) the apostle calleth magistracy "an" human ordinance or creation, not causally, as if it were devised by men, or brought in only by the fancy of men; but subjectively, because it is administered by men ; and objectively, because it is exercised about the government of human society; and finally, in respect of the end, because it is appointed by God for the good of man, and the preservation of human society."

" the

91 Tim. chap. 2. ver. 2.

" Which kind of enallage, whereby an adjective is put substantively, hath been observed in St. Peter not unusual, as namely in the second verse of this chapter, we translate " TÒ Aoyekòv yala, the milk of the word," or word which is milk ;” and in the seventh verse of the chapter following, “ws ασθενεστέρω τη γυναικείο απονέμοντες τιμήν, giving honour unto the wife as unto the weaker vessel."

s Humana dicitur ordinatio, non quod humanitus inventa fuerit, sed quod propria hominum est digesta et ordinata vivendi ratio.” Calvin. in 1 Pet. chap. 2. ver. 13.

! " Humanam vocat, non quod humanitus sit excogitata, (est enim hæc quoque donum Dei præclarum, ut Demosthenes etiam ipse testatur) sed quod hominum sit propria, ut recte observat doctissimus interpres.” Beza in 1 Pet. chap. 2. ver. 13.

U " Humanam ordinationem vocat apostolus magistratum, non causaliter, quod sit ab hominibus excogitata, et hominum tantum libidine invecta ; sed subjective, quia ab hominibus geritur; et objective, quia circa gubernationem humanæ socictatis versatur; et denique telliküç, quia ad hominis bonum et conversationem humanae societatis a Deo est constituta.” D. Pareus in append. comment. in Rom. cap. 13. dub. 3.

XII. But let us admit too that it were so called “ an human ordinance" causally; because the particular forms of government were instituted by the choice and counsel of man, and the particular form of the creation of the governors were in man's appointment; as if the apostle had said, “ Submit yourselves unto your governors, by what ordinance or human creation soever they do hold that government, whether by succession, election, or howsoever;" yet, when with the very same breath he requireth this subjection to be performed“ dià Tòv Kúplov, for God," or “the Lord's sake,” he doth clearly intimate, that God is to be acknowledged the principal, though man be the instrumental, cause of their institution.

XIII. The ministers of the Gospel, we see, receive their ordination from man's hand, and are appointed over their several flocks by man's election; and yet it is most true withal, that “God hath set them in the Church, Christy hath given” them, and “over” all the flock the holy Ghost hath made them overseers :" with whom our Saviour having promised "to be alway, even unto the end of the world,” as he was at the beginning with those first masterbuilders, which were apostles "not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father;" that which he speaketh of the first appertaineth no less unto the last : “ He that heareth you heareth me, and he that despiseth you despiseth me, and he that despiseth me despiseth him that sent me.”

XIV. The wife, we know, maketh choice of her husband, and the mutual consent of the parties makes up the matrimony; yet God it is that "joinetho them both together:" and the conjunction being once made, the wife by virtue thereof standeth bound to “submite herself unto her own husband as to the Lord.” And as God by saying to our

* I Cor. chap. 12. ver. 28.

y Ephes. chap. 1. ver. 11. 2 Acts, chap. 20. ver. 28.

a Matt. chap. 28. ver. 20. b Gal. chap. 1. ver. 1. © Luke, chap.'10. ver. 16. with John, chap. 13. ver. 20. • Matt. chap. 19. ver. 6.

Ephes. chap. 5. ver. 22.

e

« PreviousContinue »