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body of the tree, about a foot from the ground, and putting in faucets, which are usually made of the branches of elder, the pith being taken out. You may, without hurting the tree, if it be larg”, tap it in several places, four or five at the same time, and by that means get, froin a good many trees, several gallons every day. If you do not get enough in one day, the bottles in which it drops must be corked close, and resined or waxed; however, make use of it as soon as you can. You may let a tree run two or three days logether, without injuring it: then peg up all the holes. The next year, you may draw the same quantity from the same holes.
Take the sap, and boil it as long as any scum will rise, skimming it all the time. To every gallon of liquor put four pounds of good sugar and the thin peel of a lemon. Then boil it half an hour, and continue skimming it well. Pour it into a clean tub, and when it is almost cold, set it to work with yeast spread upon a toast.
Let it stand five or six days, stirring it frequently. Then take a cask, just large enough to hold all your liquor ; fire a large match dipped in brimstone, throw it in, and stop the bung hole close, till it is extinguished. Then tun your wine, and lay the bung on lightly, till it has done working. Stop it close, and at the end of three months botile it off.
Lemon Wine, To every gallon of water, put four lemons, and two pounds and a half of loaf sugar. Boil your sugar and water iogether, and break it with the whites of eggs; when clear pour it boiling hot upon the lemon peels; and when nearly cold, add a little yeast, and put in the juice of the lemons. Let it work two days, stirring it twice each day. Then drain it off from the peels, barrel it, and let it remain open a week. Then put in a quarter of an ounce of isinglass, and a bottle of brandy. Make it up close, let it stand two months, and bottle it off.
Grape Wine. When the vines are well grown, so as to bring full clusters, carefully take off some part of those leaves which too much shade the grapes ; but not in the hot season, lest the sun should loo swiftly draw away their juices, and wither them. Stay not till they are all ripe at once, for then some will be over ripe, and bruise or rot before the underlings come to perfection ; but every two or three days pick off the choice or ripe grapes, and spread them in a dry shady place, that they may not burst by the heat. Thus those that remain on the vine, having more beat to, nourish them, will grow larger, and be sooner ripe. When you have got a sufficient quantity, put them into an open vessel, and bruise them well with your hands; or if the quantity be too great, get a flat piece of wood, fastep it 10 the end of a staff, and gently press them with it, taking care not to break the stones, if possible, for that would give the wine a bitter taste. Having bruised the grapes, so that they become a pulp, you must have a lap at the boitom of your cask; then tie a hair cloth over your receiving tub, and let all the liquor out that will run out itself, which will be found to be the besi; then take out the pulp, and press it by degrees, till all the liquor is sufficiently drained off
! Then get a clean cask, well matched, and pour the liquor in through a sieve and funnel to stop the dregs. let it stand, with a slate over the bung hole, to ferment and refine, ten or twelve days. Then draw it off gently into another cask, and put the slate on the bung hole as before, till the fermentation is over, which you may know by its coolness and pleasant taste.' Thus of your white grapes you may make a good white wine, and of your red grapes, a wine much resembling claret; but should it want colour, ihe white grapes, if not too ripe, will give it a good Rhenish flavour, and are very cooling.
There is also another sort of grape, that grows in Great Britain, which has much the smell of musk, and this may, by the help of a little sugar, be made to produce a fine rich wine, much resembling canary or muscadine, and altogether as pleasant.
Apricot Wine. Take twelve pounds of apricots when nearly ripe, wipe them clean, cut them in pieces, put them into iwo gallons of water, and boil them till the water has strongly imbibed the flavour of the fruit. Strain the liquor through a hair sieve, put to every quart of it six ounces of loaf sugar, and boil it again, skimming it well, till the scum ceases to rise. Then pour it into an earthen vessel, and the next day bottle it off, putting a lump of sugar into every bouile.
Balm Wine. Take a bushel of balm leaves, put them into a tub, pour eight gallons of boiling water upon them, and let it stand a night. Then strain the liquor through a sieve, and to every
gallon of it put two pounds of loaf sugar, stirriog it well till the sugar is dissolved. Then put it on the fire, adding the whites of four eggs well beaten; let it boil half an hour, and skim it clean all the time. Put it into the tub again, and, when milk warın; add a gill of good ale yeast, stirring it every two hours. Work it thus for two days; then put it into a cask, bung it up, and when fine, bottle it off.
Sage Wine. Boil six gallons of spring water a quarter of an hour, and let it stand till it is milk warm. Then put in twenty-five pounds of Malaga raisins, picked, rubbed clean, and, cut small; together with half a bushel of red sage cut small, and a gill of good ale yeast. Mix them all well togetber, and let them stand covered, in a warm place, six or seven days, stirring them once a day. Then strain the liquor into a clean cask, and when it has worked three or four days, bung it up, and let it stand a week longer. Add to it two quarts of mountain wine, with a gill of finings, and, when fine, bottle it off.
Mead Wine. There are different kinds of this wine; but those generally made are two, namely, sack mead, and cowslip mead. Sack mead is made thus : To,every gallon of water put four pounds of honey, and boil it three quarters of an hour, taking care properly to skim it. To each gallon add half an ounce of hops, then boil it half an hour, and let it stand till the next day. Then put it into a cask; and to thirteen gallons of the liquor add a quart of brandy or sack. Let it be tightly closed till the fermentation is over, and then stop it up very close. If you make as much as fills a large cask, you must not bottle it off till it has stood a year.
To make cowslip inead you must proceed thus: Put thirty pounds of honey into fifteen gallons of water, and boil it lill one gallon is wasted; skim it, take it off the fire, and have ready sixteen lemons cut in half. Take a gallon of the liquor, and put it to the lemons. Pour the rest of the liquor into a tub, with seven pecks of cowslips, and let them stand all night: then put in the liquor with the lemons, eight spoonsful of new yeast, and a handful of sweetbrier; stir all well together, and let it work three or four days. Then strain it, pour it into your cask, let it stand six months, and then bottle it off for use.
As this liquor is much drank in some counties, we shall close this article by a more particular receipt for making it, procured from good authority.
To one hundred and twenty gallons of pure water, the softer the better, put fifteen gallons of clarified honey. When the honey is well mixed with the water, fill a copper, which holds about sixty gallons, and boil it till it is reduced about a fourth part. Then draw it off, and boil the remainder of the liquor in the same manner. When this last is about a fourth part wasted, fill up the copper with some of that which was first boiled, and continue boiling it and filling it up, till the copper contains the whole of the liquor, by. which time it will of course be half evaporated.
Observe, in boiling, never to take off the scum, but on the contrary, have it well mixed with the liquor whilst boiling by means of a jet. When this is done, draw it off into underbacks, by a cock at the bottom of the copper, in which let it remain till it is only as warm as new milk.
At this time in it, and suffer it to ferment in the vessel, where it will form a thick head. As soon as it has done working, stop it down very close, in order to keep the air from it as much as possible. Keep it, if possible, in a cellar or vault for the purpose, which is very deep and cool, and the door shut so close, as to keep out, in a manner, all the outward air; so that the liquor may be always in the same temperature, being not at all affected by the change of weather.
Another proportion is to allow eighty pounds of clarified honey to one hundred and twenty gallons of soft water, which manage in the making in all respects like the before-mentioned, and it will prove very pleasant, good, light drinking; and is, by many preferred to the other, which is much richer, and has a fuller flavour; but at the same time it is more inebriating, and apt to make the head ache, if drank in too large quantities.
Upon the whole, the last proportion makes the wholesomest liquor for common drink, the other being rather, when properly preserved, a rich cordial, something like fine old Malaga, which, when in perfection, is justly esteemed the best of the Spanish wines.
Wine Vinegar. Take any sort of vinous liquor that has gone through the process of fermentation, and put it into a vinegar cask that has been lately used. Then take some of the fruit or stalks of the vegetable from whence the wine was obtained (which hold a large proportion of tartar) and put them wet into a cask without a head; set it to catch the rays of the sun, with a coarse cloth over the top of it, and let it stand six days. Then put them in the liquor, and stir it well about; and if in winter, set it in a warm place; or, if hot weather, in a yard where the sun will reach it, with a slate over the bung; and the whole will begin to ferment anew, conceive heat, grow sour by degrees, and soon after turn into vinegar. When the vinegar is sufficiently sour, and fine, you may rack it off into a clean vinegar cask, bung it up, and put into your cellar for use.
Cider Vinegar. The cider is first to be drawn off fine into another vessel, that has contained vinegar, and a quantity of the must, that is, new wort, of apples to be added. Set the whole in the rays of the sun, if there be convenience for it; and, at the expiration of a week or nine days, it may be drawn off into anotber cask. This will make good table vinegar.
Apples that have been pressed, may be substituted in the place of must. The meanest cider will serve for vinegar.
Beer Vinegar. Take a middle sort of beer, pretty well hopped; into which, when it has worked well and grown fine, put some rape, or husks of grapes (usually brought home for that purpose) or raisins with their stalks, to every ten gallops of beer a pound: mash thein together in a iub, and, when settled well, draw off the liquor into another cask, and set it in the sun as hot as you can, with the bung out, and the hole being only covered with a tile, or slate. In the space of a month or six weeks it will become a good vinea a 24