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AMARYLLIS (HIPPEASTRUM) PARDINA.
WITH AN ILLUSTRATION. This magnificent species of Amaryllis is one of the most striking novelties of the past season, perfectly distinct from all the species of Amaryllis previously known, and remarkable alike for its form, which is spreading, with scarcely any tube, so that the whole inner surface is displayed to view; and for its colouring, which reminds one of the spotted varieties of Calceolaria or of Tydæa, so closely are its perianth segments covered over with small dots, more or less irregularly confluent, of crimson red on a creamy yellow ground. So distinct a plant, combining as it does great beauty with its distinctness, cannot but be a valuable acquisition for our gardens.
The plant is a native of Peru, and was introduced from thence by the Messrs. Veitch & Sons, of Chelsea, through their fortunate collector, Mr. Pearce. It was exhibited in bloom at one of the meetings held during March of the present year, and was much and deservedly admired. Its merits were marked on this occasion by the award of first-class certificate, which was in every way deserved. Every grower of hothouse bulbs must secure it for his collection.
Our memoranda, taken from the blooming plant, describe the leaves as broadly linear, somewhat blunt, and about 14 inch broad. The flower-stem is robust, terete, and glaucous, supporting two flowers, which issue from a spathe of pallid oblong-lanceolate bracts, and are supported on pedicels of about 1.1 inch long. The flowers are widely expanded-6 to 8 inches broad; the tube very short, and fringed within ; the sepaline segments ovate oblong, apiculate, the petaline similar, but blunter, all greenish at the base of the tube, yellowish white upwards, and there spotted thickly with crimson dots; the stamens declinate, with red filaments and green anthers.
Being a native of Peru, this species will not require excessive heat; a cool stove treatment will be best for it. In other respects its culture will be similar to that of other stove Amaryllids, some of which were recently noticed in our pages.
GARDEN ROSES. “ Roses at the exhibitions and Roses in one's own garden are different things,” said an old Rose amateur to me the other day; and so much is there in this remark, that having already given a paper on Roses at the exhibitions, I turn now to treat of “ Garden Roses."
It is, perhaps, scarcely necessary to remark that those who admire Roses in all their native loveliness on bush or tree, should hardly choose their varieties from the cut specimens met with at the flower shows. Lovely they are, it is true—for when and where is the Rose not lovely ?—but there is a " getting up," a weary look about them, which reminds one of the late hours of the ball-room rather than of the charming freshness and native simplicity of home life. And how can it be otherwise ? When we consider that these Roses have been gathered from fifty to sixty hours before the public is admitted to see them, a part of which time they are packed in boxes almost immured from air and light, the wonder is that they look as fresh as they do. Then, again, the mere exhibitor of Roses runs too much after one idea-form, to be a safe guide when choosing for garden decoration. He
does not heed sufficiently habit and constitution ; and hence the symmetrical flower of the exhibition table is often the offspring of a weakly or shabby tree. We want good Roses; but we want also, for the purpose of general gardening, varieties of hardy constitution that will grow and flower well, and live to a good old age, without the petting and coaxing which so many of the modern varieties require. To choose Roses, unless exhibiting is the main object in view, one should see them in their rural homes, where the act of “getting up” is seldom practised, and pretty faces count only at their proper worth
-should see them when newly opened by the breath of morn, and while still wet with the dews of heaven. Freshness is the crowning beauty, the indescribable and irresistible charm of the Queen of flowers, and this freshness is wanting in nine-tenths of the flowers met with on the exhibition tables. But there is more in the matter than this. The practised rosarian may gather from a solitary bloom, or a trio of blooms, whether the plant is of hardy or delicate constitution, whether the bearing is handsome or awkward, whether the flowers are generally or only occasionally fine, and the many other little points important though often overlooked in the hasty generalisations of this busy age, and which go to make up a good Rose—the practised rosarian, I say, may arrive pretty accurately at these facts from cut specimens, but woe be to the unpractised who decides and acts on such evidence. Daily experience confirms the opinion long entertained by the writer, that they who want Roses to decorate their gardens should choose from growing plants rather than from cut flowers. Acting on these views I lately, when visiting the Rose gardens in France, made notes of the best garden Roses, and these I have corrected by comparison with the collection growing here under my own eye.
First, I would observe that the amateur who wishes for a fine display of Roses in June and July, will lose much if he exclude from his list certain varieties of summer Roses. Among the Moss Roses there are:-Comtesse de Murinais (white), Gloire de Mousseuses (blush), Marie de Blois (lilac), the old-fashioned Moss and the Crested Moss (pink), Baron de Wassenaer (red), and Captain Ingram and Purpurea rubra (purple), all free, hardy, profuse, and beautiful. Of Damask Roses Madame Hardy and Madame Soetmans are still unsurpassed as white flowers, although rarely met with at the exhibitions. The varieties Félicité and La Séduisante compel us to retain the group Alba ; these are improved varieties of the Maiden's Blush, and, although there are now Hybrid Perpetuals of similar character, they are so delicate as to be short-lived and scarcely manageable. Neither are the old French Roses to be hastily ignored, for in Eillet Parfait and Perle des Panachés we have the two best striped Roses (white striped with crimson and rose), that have yet appeared. Again, where effect is valued, where masses of bloom are desired, there are none comparable to the old Hybrid Chinas Charles Lawson, Chénédolé, Coupe d'Hébé, Juno, Madame Plantier, Paul Perras, and Paul Ricaut. Nor must we forget to include Harrisoni (Austrian), a plant of matchless beauty when covered with its golden globes in May and June. Yet how few of these ever put in an appearance at the Rose shows! If our new Hybrid Perpetuals produced the masses of bloom in summer which the above-mentioned kinds do, and continued to bloom constantly throughout the autumn, it would be well to take them in preference. But this is not the fact. Cultivators know well that the majority of these Hybrid Perpetuals produce fewer flowers in summer, and scarcely an equivalent in the later flowers. The difference is, perhaps, hardly appreciable in the sum total of flowers. It is this : The summer Roses pay
you a good round sum down at once; the autumnals the same or a nearly similar sum by instalments. The latter are valuable because they give us flowers when
“The last Rose of summer is faded and gone ;"' but it cannot be said that they produce the splendid effect of the summer Roses in the months of June and July. Let me not be misunderstood. I have no wish to depreciate the autumnals; all I contend for is, that each has its peculiar value, and the Rose garden is incomplete without a goodly portion of these summer-blooming kinds.
Having stated my views in reference to summer Roses, I now turn to the autumnals, among which the Hybrid Perpetuals and Tea-scented hold the highest rank alike as garden and show Roses, although the same kinds are not always equally suitable for both purposes. Among the Hybrid Pera petuals the following will be found to give very general satisfaction:Alfred Colomb, Alphonse Damaizin, Anna Alexieff, Baron Adolphe Roths. child, Beauty of Waltham, Charles Lefebvre, Comtesse de Chabrillant, Dr. Andry, Duke of Wellington, Elizabeth Vigneron, Exposition de Brié, Fisher Holmes, François Louvat, Général d'Hautpoult, Général Jacqueminot, Glory of Waltham, Jean Rosenkrantz, John Hopper, Jules Margottin, Lady Suffield, La Brillante, La Duchesse de Morny, Leopold Hausburg, Lord Macaulay, Madame Alfred de Rougemont, Madame Charles Wood, Madame Rivers, Madame Victor Verdier, Maréchal Vaillant, Marguerite de St. Amand, Pierre Notting, Prince Camille de Rohan, Princess of Wales, Sénateur Vaisse, Souvenir de la Reine d'Angleterre, Triomphe des Français and Victor Verdier. Of Bourbon Perpetuals, Baron Gonella, Baronne Noirmont, Comtesse Barbantanne, Madame Charles Baltet, and Madame de Stella are excellent. Louis XIV., of the Rose de Rosomène group is also invaluable on account of the rich deep red globular flowers which it produces. Among the charming Tea-scented varieties the best are:-Alba Rosa, Bougère, Devoniensis, Eugénie Desgaches, Gloire de Dijon, Homer, Madame Damaizin, Madame Falcot, Madame Margottin, Madame Villermoz, Maréchal Niel, Narcisse, Niphetos, Rubens, Safrano, Sombreuil, and Souvenir d'un Ami. Of Bourbons I recommend Empress Eugénie, Souvenir de Malmaison, and Mrs. Bosanquet; while of Noisettes, Aimée Vibert, Céline Forestier, and Fellenberg are the most effective in their way.
The colours and general character of the above varieties may be readily ascertained by reference to any of the great Rose-growers' catalogues. Paul's Nurseries, Waltham Cross, N.
HINTS ON ENDIVE CULTURE. It will often be found that a want of success in keeping up a good supply of kitchen requisites will be the result of inattention to the minor details of culture and management, though it is possible that the general principles that should rule our practice may be well understood. For example, the general idea I wished to convey in my last paper on the culture of Lettuce (p. 196), was the absolute necessity of regular sowings at proper intervals; but, coupled with that, a similar amount of attention must be paid to the transplanting, and afterwards preparing for the table. Transplantation should always be attended to as soon as the plants are sufficiently large to be able to resist the attacks of snails, and before they get drawn up weakly; and blanching for the table (which is an operation usually performed by tying the leaves together with a string of matting), must only be done when the plants are perfectly dry, and should only be performed on a limited number at once. To save time, this operation is often performed in a very wholesale manner, a whole bed being tied up at once. This is all very well for a market gardener, who can cut a waggonload in a day; but where only a certain number is required daily, it often happens that more than a third of the crop will rot off. The remedy is obvious—it is the minor detail of only tying up a few at a time.
The next most important crop for salad purposes, after Lettuce, is Endive, of which there are two types, the Curled, and the Batavian or Broad-leaved. These are so liable to run to seed if sown early, that unless Endive is in particular request it is not advisable to sow before the middle of June, after which, if the plants are thinned out timely, and kept from extreme drought, they will not run. Two more sowings may be made during the season, at intervals of about a month. The last one, in August, should be the largest sowing, as from it are to be derived the main crops for the winter supply, and also for planting in sheltered places to stand through the winter.
The seed may be sown either broadcast or in drills, the latter being generally preferred on account of the facility which it affords for thinning, which should always be done in time to prevent drawing. The first thinning should be made when the plants are about an inch in height, and whether in drills or broadcast they should be left at 3 inches apart. It is the neglect of this first thinning which is one of the minor details overlooked, for in five cases out of six we shall find that thinning the seed-bed is never practised until the plants are required for transplanting, and the consequence is that from being drawn up weakly, the plants have to make an entirely new start from the heart leaves, and a week or ten days are lost in the growth of the plants. On the contrary, when they are timely thinned, and again for transplanting into beds, as soon as they are found to cover the seed-bed, they will become stocky and well rooted ; and, if carefully watered when planted, will start into growth at once. A portion should always be left in the seed-bed at from 12 to 14 inches apart, to come in earlier than those which have been transplanted from it.
Endive, like most other kitchen-garden crops, revels in good fat ground, and with regard to the sowing in June and July such may be allowed it, but with the later sowing in August this must be taken with a reservation, because a fat soil brings up a succulent herbage, and such herbage is peculiarly liable to injury from frost. The August sowing is supposed to supply the months of December, January, and February at least, and from the smallest plants I have carried them on into March and the end of April; but from experience I find that the soil for these plants must not be so strong as to excite a succulent and tender growth. At all seasons it is advisable that Endive should be planted deeply—that is to say, the crown of the plant should be at least 2 inches below the surface level. To facilitate the operation, use a large sharp-pointed dibble, so that there may be a sort of basin formed round the crown of the plant for the reception of water, which must always be applied at planting time, though the seasons are rare in which it is required afterwards. Towards the end of September plantations should be made at the base of south walls. I generally plant Endive and Bath Cos or Hardy Green Lettuces alternately, and I find them to come in very useful; the Lettuce especially comes in about ten days or a fortnight before those in the more open quarters.