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General Court of Massachusetts,

IN THE YEAR

1921,

TOGETHER WITH

THE CONSTITUTION, THE REARRANGEMENT OF THE CONSTITU-
TION, TABLES SHOWING CHANGES IN THE STATUTES; LAW
APPROVED BY THE PEOPLE IN NOVEMBER, 1920, AND
ACTS AND RESOLVES AND AMENDMENTS TO THE
CONSTITUTION PASSED BY THE GENERAL
COURT OF MASSACHUSETTS AT AN
EXTRA SESSION, DECEMBER,

1920, ETC., ETC.

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BOSTON:
WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS,

32 DERNE STREET."

1921.

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A CONSTITUTION

OR

FORM OF GOVERNMENT

FOR

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts

PREAMBLE.

!

The end of the institution, maintenance, and administra- Objects of tion of government, is to secure the existence of the body government. politic, to protect it, and to furnish the individuals who compose it with the power of enjoying in safety and tranquillity their natural rights, and the blessings of life: and whenever these great objects are not obtained, the people have a right to alter the government, and to take measures necessary for their safety, prosperity, and happiness.

The body politic is formed by a voluntary association Body politie, of individuals: it is a social compact, by which the whole its nature. people covenants with each citizen, and each citizen with the whole people, that all shall be governed by certain laws for the common good. It is the duty of the people, therefore, in framing a constitution of government, to provide for an equitable mode of making laws, as well as for an impartial interpretation and a faithful execution of them; that every man may, at all times, find his security in them.

We, therefore, the people of Massachusetts, acknowledging, with grateful hearts, the goodness of the great Legislator of the universe, in affording us, in the course of His providence, an opportunity, deliberately and peaceably, without fraud, violence, or surprise, of entering into

an original, explicit, and solemn compact with each other;
and of forming a new constitution of civil government,
for ourselves and posterity; and devoutly imploring His
direction in so interesting a design, do agree upon, ordain,
and establish, the following Declaration of Rights, and
Frame of Government, as the CONSTITUTION OF THE COM-
MONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS.

PART THE FIRST.

of all men.

therein.
2 Cush. 104.

See amendments, Arts.

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XLVIII.

A Declaration of the Rights of the Inhabitants of the

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Equality and

Article I. All men are born free and equal, and have , natural rights

certain natural, essential, and unalienable rights; among
which may be reckoned the right of enjoying and defend-
ing their lives and liberties; that of acquiring, possess-
ing, and protecting property; in fine, that of seeking and

obtaining their safety and happiness.
Right and duty II. It is the right as well as the duty of all men in
of public reli-
gious worship. society, publicly, and at stated seasons, to worship the

SUPREME BEING, the great Creator and Preserver of the 12 Allen, 129. universe. And no subject shall be hurt, molested, or

restrained, in his person, liberty, or estate, for worshipXLVI and

ping God in the manner and season most agreeable to the
dictates of his own conscience; or for his religious pro-
fession or sentiments; provided he doth not disturb the

public peace, or obstruct others in their religious worship. Art. XI, substi

III. [As the happiness of a people, and the good order tuted for this. and preservation of civil government, essentially depend

upon piety, religion, and morality; and as these cannot
be generally diffused through a community but by the

institution of the public worship of God, and of public
Legislature instructions in piety, religion, and morality: Therefore,
empowered to
com pel provi to promote their happiness, and to secure the good order
worship public and preservation of their government, the people of this

commonwealth have a right to invest their legislature with
power to authorize and require, and the legislature shall,
from time to time, authorize and require, the several towns,
parishes, precincts, and other bodies politic, or religious
societies, to make suitable provision, at their own expense,
for the institution of the public worship of God, and for
the support and maintenance of public Protestant teachers

Amendments,

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of piety, religion, and morality, in all cases where such
provision shall not be made voluntarily.

And the people of this commonwealth have also a right Legislature
to, and do, invest their legislature with authority to enjoin attendance
upon all the subjects an attendance upon the instructions
of the public teachers aforesaid, at stated times and sea-
sons, if there be any on whose instructions they can con-
scientiously and conveniently attend.

Provided, notwithstanding, that the several towns, par- Exclusive right ishes, precincts, and other bodies politic, or religious socie- gious teachers ties, shall, at all times, have the exclusive right of electing their public teachers, and of contracting with them for their support and maintenance.

And all moneys paid by the subject to the support of Option as to public worship, and of the public teachers aforesaid, shall, taxes may be if he require it, be uniformly applied to the support of the etc. public teacher or teachers of his own religious sect or denomination, provided there be any on whose instructions he attends; otherwise it may be paid towards the support of the teacher or teachers of the parish or precinct in which the said moneys are raised.

And every denomination of Christians, demeaning them- All denominaselves peaceably, and as good subjects of the common- protected. wealth, shall be equally under the protection of the law: 8 Met. 162. and no subordination of any one sect or denomination to of one sect to another shall ever be established by law.]

IV. The people of this commonwealth have the sole Right of self and exclusive right of governing themselves, as a free, so verament sovereign, and independent state; and do, and forever hereafter shall, exercise and enjoy every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not, or may not hereafter be, by them expressly delegated to the United States of America, in Congress assembled.

V. All power residing originally in the people, and Accountability being derived from them, the several magistrates and etc. officers of government, vested with authority, whether legislative, executive, or judicial, are their substitutes and agents, and are at all times accountable to them.

VI. No man, nor corporation, or association of men, Services renhave any other title to obtain advantages, or particular public being and exclusive privileges, distinct from those of the com- peculiar privimunity, than what arises from the consideration of services rendered to the public; and this title being in absurd and nature neither hereditary, nor transmissible to children,

Subordination

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another prohibited.

leges, hereditary offices are

unnatural.

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