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treasure; yet, to this day, have never em- tors ; we cannot expect, no, not the least ployed any of them seasonably, but are success, in any one particular. Wherever a ever last in the field. Just as barbarians part of our city is detached, although the engage at boxing, so you make war with whole be not present, the favour of the Philip : for, when one of them receives a gods and the kindness of fortune attend to blow, that blow engages him : if itruck fight upon our side ; but when we send out in another part, to that part his hands are a general, and an infignificant decree, and fifted : but to ward off the blow, or to the hopes of our speakers, misfortune and watch his antagonist for this, he hath disappointment must ensue. Such expedineither skill nor spirit. Even so, if you tions are to our enemies a sport, but strike hear that Philip is in the Chersonelus, you our allies with deadly apprehensions. For resolve to send forces thither ; if in Ther- it is not, it is not pollible for any one man to mopylæ, chither; if in any other place, perform every thing you desire. He may you hurry up and down, you follow his promise, and harangue, and accuse this or Handard. But no useful scheme for car- that person: but to such proceedings we rying on the war, no wise provisions are owe the ruin of our affairs. For, when a ever thought of, until you hear of some general who commanded a wretched colenterprise in execution, or already crowned lection of unpaid foreigners, hath been dewir a success. This might have formerly feated; when there are persons here, who, bet n pardonable, but now is the very cri- in arraigning his conduct, dare to advance ucal moment, when it can by no means be falsehoods, and when you lightly engage admitted

in any determination, juit from their sugIt seems to me, Athenians, that some gestions ; what must be the consequence ? divinity, who, from a regard to Athens, How then hall cheie abuses be removed? looks down upon our conduct with indig. -By offering yourselves, Athenians, to nation, bath inspired Philip with this ret- execute the commands of your general, to leis ambition. For were he to sit down be witnesies of his conduct in the field, in the quiet enjoyment of his conquests and his judges at your return : so as not and acquisitions, without proceeding to any only to hear how your affairs are transacted, new attempts, there are men among you, but to inspect them. But now, so thamewho, I think, would be unmoved at those fully are we degenerated, that each of our trantactions, which have branded our state commanders is twice or thrice called bewith the odious marks of infamy, cow- fore you to answer for his life, though ardice, and all that is base. But as he not one of them dared to hazard that lite, fill pursues his conquests, as he is still by once engaging his enemy. No; they extending his ambitious views, poflibly, he chuse the death of robbers and pilferers, may at lait call you forth, unleis you have rather than to fall as becomes them. Such renounced the name of Athenians. To me malefactors should die by the sentence of it is attonishing, that none of you look the law. Generals should meet their fate back to the beginning of this war, and bravely in the field. confider that we engaged in it to chastise Then, as to your own conduct- fome the insolence of Philip; but that now it wander about, crying, Philip hath joined is become a defensive war, to secure us with the Lacedemonians, and they are confrom his attempts. And that he will ever certing the destruction of Thebes, and be repeating thele attempts is manifeft, un- the diffolution of some free states. Others less fome power rises to oppose him. But, assure us he hath sent an embaiĩy to the if we wait in expectation of this, if we king; others, that he is fortifying places fend out armaments composed of empty in Illyria. Thus we all go about framing gallies, and those hopes with which fome our several tales. I do believe indeel, speaker may have flattered you ; can you

Athenians ! he is intoxicated with his khen think your intereits well secured ? thall greatness, and does entertain his imaginaWe not embark? Thall we not fail, with at tion with many such vilionary prospects, leaft a part of our domestic force, now, as he sees no power rising to oppose him, fince we have not hitherto ?—But where and is elated with his success. But I canthall we make our descent ? --Let us but not be perfuaded that he hath so taken his engage in the enterprise, and the war itself, measures, that the weakest among us know Athenians, will thew us where he is weakest. what he is next to do: (for it is the wenkelt But if we fit at home, listening to the mu- among us who spread thete rumours) -Let dal invectives and accusations of our ora. us disregard them : let us be persuaded of this, that he is our enemy, that he hath tions which he had long entertained fpoiled us of our dominions, that we have secretly against the Olynthians. long been subject to his infolence, that Olynthius (a city of Thrace possessed by whatever we expected to be done for us by Greeks originally from Chalcis,-a others, hath proved against us, that all the town of Eubea and colony of Athens) resource left' is in ourselves, that, if we commanded a large tract called the are not inclined to carry our arms abroad, Chalcidian region, in which there we may be forced to engage here--let us be were thirty-two cities. It had arisen persuaded of this, and then we shall come by degrees to such a pitch of granto a proper determination, then shall we be deur, as to have frequent and refreed from those idle tales. For we are not markable contests both with Athens to be solicitous to know what particular and Lacedemon. Nor did the Olynevents will happen ; we need but be con- thians shew great regard to the vinced nothing good can happen, unless friendship of Philip when he first came you grant the due attention to affairs, and to the throne, and was taking all be ready to act as becomes Athenians. measures to secure the possession of it.

I, on my part, have never upon any oc- For they did not scruple to receive cafionchosen to court your favour, by speak, two of his brothers by another maring any thing but what I was convinced riage, who had fled to avoid the efwould serve you. And, on this occasion, I fects of his jealousy; and endeahave freely declared my sentiments, with- voured to conclude an alliance with out art, and without reserve. It would have Athens, against him, which he, by pleased me indeed, that, as it is for your ad- secret practices, found means to vantage to have your true interest laid be. defeat. But as he was yet scarcely fure you, so I might be assured that he who secure upon his throne, instead of exJayeth it before you, would share the ad- presling his resentment, he courted, vantages: for then I had spoken with greater or rather purchased, the alliance of alacrity. However, uncertain as is the con- the Olynthians, by the cession of Anfequence with respect to me, I yet deter- themus, a city which the kings of mined to speak, because I was convinced Macedon had long disputed with that these measures, if pursued, must have them, and afterwards, by that of their use. And, of all those opinions which Pydna and Potidea ; which their are offered to your acceptance, may that be joint forces had besieged and taken chosen, which will best advance the general from the Athenians. But the Olynweal !

Leland. thians could not be influenced by gra

titude towards such a benefactor. The $ 2. The firft Olynthiac Oration : pronounced rapid progress of his arms, and his four Years after the forf Philippic, in the

glaring acts of perfidy, alarmed them Archonship of Callimachus, the fourth rear

exceedingly. He had already made of the Hundred and Seventh Olympiad, and some inroads on their territories, and ibe twelfth of Philip's Reign.

now began to act against them with INTRODUCTION,

less reserve. They therefore disThe former Oration doth not appear patched ambassadors to Athens to

to have had any considerable effect. propose an alliance, and request af-
Philip had his creatures in the Athe- fiftance against a power which they
nian a fiembly, who probably recom- were equally concerned to oppose.
mended less vigorous measures, and Philip affected the highest resentment
were but too favourably heard. In at this ftep; alledged their mutual
the mean time, this prince pursued engagements to adhere to each other
his ambitious designs. When he in war and peace; inveighed against
found himself shut out of Greece, he their harbouring his brothers, whom
turned his arms to such reniote parts, he called the conspirators; and, under
as he might reduce without alarming pretence of punishing their infrac-
the states of Greece. And, at the tions, pursued his holi ilities with dou-
fame time, he revenged himself upon ble vigour, made himself master of
the Athenians, by making himself fome of their cities, and threatened
master of some places which they laid the capital with a fiege.
claim to. At length his success em- In the mean time, the Olynthians pres-
boldened him to declare those inten- fed the Athenians for immediate suc-


cours. Their ambaladors opened ceived, from those whose public admi. their commission in an assembly of niftration hath been devoted to his inthe people, who had the right either tereft; those services which you muit to agree to, or to reject their de- punish, I do not think it seasonable to dismand. As the importance of the oc- play. There are other points of more mocasion increased the number of speak- ment for you all to hear; and which muit ers, the elder orators had debated the excite the greatest abhorrence of him, in affair before Demosthenes arose. In every reasonable mind.—These I lhall lay the following oration therefore he before you. speaks as to a people already inform- And now, should I call him perjured ed, urges the necellity of joining with and perfidious, and not point out the inthe Olynthians, and confirms his opi- stances of this his guilt, it might be deem. nion by powerful arguments; lays ed the mere virulence of malice, and with open the designs and practices of justice. Nor will it engage too much of Philip, and labours to remove their your attention to hear hinn fully and clearly dreadful apprehensions of his power. convicted, from a full and clear detail of He concludes with recommending to all his actions. And this I think ureful them to reform abuses, to restore an- upon two accounts: first, that he inay apcient discipline, and to put an end to pear, as he really is, treacherous and falle; all domestic diffenfions.

and then, that they who are itruck with

terror, as if Philip was something more IN many instances (Athenians !) have than human, may see that he hath exthe gods, in my opinion, manifestly de. hausted all those artifices to which he owes clared their favour to this state: nor is it his present elevation; and that his affairs leaft observable in this present juncture. are now ready to declme. For I myself For that an enemy should arise against (Athenians !) should think Philip really Philip, on the very confines of his king- to be dreaded and admired, if I saw him dom, of no inconfiderable power, and, raised by honourable means. But I find, what is of most importance, so determined upon reflection, that at the time when ceropon the war, that they consider any ac- tain persons drove out the Olynthians from commodation with him, first, as insidious, this assembly, when desirous of conferring rext, as the downfal of their country: with you, he began with abusing our sim. this seems no less than the gracious inter- plicity by his promise of surrendering Amposition of Heaven itself. It must, there- phipolis, and executing the secret article fore, be our care (Athenians!) that we of his treaty, then so much spoken of: ourselves may not frustrate this goodness. that, after this, he courted the friend thip For it must reflect disgrace, nay, the of the Olynthians by seizing Potidæa, fouleft infamy upon us, if we appear to where we were rightful sovereigns, dehave thrown away not those states and spoiling us his former allies, and giving territories only which we once commanded, them poffeffion: that, but just now, he but those alliances and favourable inci- gained the Theffalians, by promising to dents

, which fortune hath provided for us. give up Magnesia; and, for their ease, to To begin on this occafion with a display take the whole conduct of the Phocian war of Philip's power, or to press you to exert upon himself. In a word, there are no your vigour, by motives drawn from hence, people who ever made the least use of him, is , in my opinion, quite improper. And but have suffered by his subtlety: his prewhy? Because whatever may be offered sent greatness being wholly owing to his upon such a subject, sets him in an ho- deceiving those who were unacquainted nourable view, but seems to me, as a re- with him, and making them the instrue" proach to our conduct. For the higher ments of his success. As these states therehis exploits have arisen above his former fore raised him, while each imagined he' efimation, the more must the world ad- was promoting some interest of theirs ; mire him: while your disgrace hath been these states must also reduce him to his the greater, the more your conduct_hath former meanness, as it now appears that proved unworthy of your state. These his own private interest was the end of all things therefore I shall pass over. He in- his actions. deed, who examines juftly, must find the Thus then, Athenians! is Philip cirfoarce of all his greatness here, not in him- cumstanced. If not, let the man ftand: helst. But the services he hath here re. forth, who can prove to me, I Mhould have faid to this assembly, that I have asserted your fortunes, your persons, must appear these things falsely; or that they whom he devoted to the common cause; your uthath deceived in former instances, will most efforts must be exerted. If you will confide in him for the future; or that the act thus, as your honour and your interest Thessalians, who have been so basely, so require; then, Athenians! you will not undeservedly enslaved, would not gladly only discover the weakness and infrncerity embrace their freedom.-If there be any of the confederates of Philip, but the ruone among you, who acknowledges all inous condition of his own kingdom will this, yet thinks that Philip will support also be laid open. The power and fovehis power, as he hath secured places of reignty of Macedon may have some weight ftrength, convenient ports, and other like indeed, when joined with others. Thus, advantages; he is deceived. For when when you marched against the Olynthians, forces join in harmony and affection, and under the conduct of Timotheus, it proved one common interest unites the confede- an useful ally; when united with the Olynrating powers, then they share the toils thians against Potidæa, it added something with alacrity, they endure the diftresses, to their force; juft now, when the Thelthey persevere. But when extravagant am- falians were in the midst of disorder, sebition, and lawless power (as in his case) dition, and confusion, it aided them against have aggrandised a single person ; the first the family of their tyrants : (and in every pretence, the slightest accident, overthrows case, any, even a small accefion of strength, him, and all his greatness is dashed at once is, in my opinion, of confiderable effect.) to the ground. For it is not, no, Atheni- But of itself, unsupported, it is infirm, it ans! it is not possible to found a lasting is totally diftempered: for by all thofe power upon injustice, perjury, and trea- glaring exploits, which have given him chery. "These may perhaps fucceed for this apparent greatness, his wars, his exonce'; and borrow for a while, from peditions, he hath rendered it yet weaker hope, a gay and flourishing appearance. than it was naturally. For you are not to But time betrays their weakness; and they imagine that the inclinations of his fubfall into ruin of themselves. For, as in jects are the same with those of Philip. fructures of every kind, the lower parts He thirfts for glory: this is his object, this fhould have the greatest firmness, so the he eagerly pursues, through toils and dangrounds and principles of actions should be gers of every kind; despising safety and juft and true. But these advantages are life, when compared with the honour of not found in the actions of Philip. atchieving such actions as no other prince

I say then, that you should dispatch suc- of Macedon could ever boast of. But cours to the Olynthians : (and the more his subjects have no part in this ambihonourably and expeditiously this is pro- tion. Harrassed by those various excurposed to be done, the more agreeably to sions he is ever making, they groan under my sentiments) and send an embaffy to perpetual calamity; torn from their busithe Theffalians, to inform some, and to en- ness, and their families, and without opliven that fpirit already raised in others: portunity to dispose of that pittance which (for it hath actually been resolved to de. their toils have earned; as all commerce is mand the restitution of Pagafæ, and to shut out from the coaft of Macedon by the assert their claim to Magnefia.) And let it war. be your care, Athenians, that our ambal- Hence one may perceive how his subfadors may not depend only upon words, jects in general are affected to Philip. but give them fome action to display, by But then his auxiliaries, and the soldiers of taking the field in a manner worthy of his phalanx, have the character of wonderthe state, and engaging in the war with ful forces, trained compleatly to war. And vigour. For words, if not accompanied yet I can affirm, upon the credit of a perby actions, muft ever appear vain and con-' son from that country, incapable of falsetemptible; and particularly when they hood, that they have no such fuperiority. come from us, whose prompt abilities, and For, as he affures me, if any man of exwell-known eminence in speaking, make perience in military affairs should be found us to be always heard with the greater among them, he dismisses all such, from fufpicion.

an ambition of having every great action Would you indeed regain attention and ascribed wholly to himself: (for, befides his confidence, your measures must be greatly other passions, the man hath this ambition changed, your conduct totally reformed; in the higheit degree.) And if any per


fon, from a sense of decency, or other vir- where; whom no opportunity escapes; to tuous principle, betrays a dislike of his whom no season is unfavourable; should daily intemperance, and riotings, and ob- be superior to you, who are wholly enscenities, he loses all favour and regard; gaged in contriving delays, and framing so that none are left about him, but decrees, and enquiring after news. I am Wretches, who subfist on rapine and flat- not surprised at this, for the contrary muit tery, and who, when heated with wine, do have been surprising: if we, who never nor fcruple to deicend to such instances act in any single instance, as becomes a of revelry, as it would shock you to re- ftate

engaged in


conquer him, peat. Nor can the truth of this be doubt. who, in every instance, acts with an indeed: for they whom we all conspired to fatigable vigilance. This indeed surprises drive from hence, as infamous and aban- me; that you, who fought the cause of doned, Callias the public servant, and Greece against Lacedemon, and generously others of the same stamp; buffcons, com- declined all the many favourable opportuposers of lewd songs, in which they ridi- nities of aggrandizing yourselves; who, cule their companions: these are the per- to secure their property to others, parted fons whom he entertains and caresses. And with your own, by your contributions; and these things, Athenians, trifling as they bravely exposed yourselves in battle; should may appear to some, are to men of just now decline the service of the field, and discernment great indications of the weak- delay the necessary supplies, when called to ness both of his mind and fortune. At the defence of your own rights: that you, present, his successes cast a shade over in whom Greece in general, and each parthem; for prosperity hath great power to ricular state, hath often found protection, veil such bareness from observation. But should fit down quiet spectators of your let his arms meet with the least disgrace, own private wrongs. This I say surprises and all his actions will be exposed. This me: and one thing more; that not a man is a truth, of which he himself, Athenians! among you can reflect how long a time will, in my opinion, foon convince you, if we have been at war with Philip, and in the gods favour us, and you exert your what measures, this time hath all been vigour. For as in our bodies, while a man waited. You are not to be informed, that, is in health, he feels no effect of any in- in delaying, in hoping that others would ward weakness; but, when disease attacks assert our cause, in accusing each other, him, every thing becomes sensible, in the in impeaching, then again entertaining veifels, in the joints, or in whatever other hopes, in such measures as are now purpart his frame may be disordered; so in sued, that time hath been entirely wasted. itates and monarchies, while they carry on And are you so devoid of apprehension, as a war abroad, their defects escape the ge- to imagine, when our state hath been reDeral eye : but when once it approaches duced from greatness to wretchedness, that their own territory, then they are all de- the very same conduct will raise us from tected.

wretchedness to greatness? No! this is If there be any one among you who, not reasonable, it is not natural; for it is from Philip's good fortune, concludes that much easier to defend, than to acquire he must prove a formidable enemy; such dominions. But, now, the war hath left reasoning is not unworthy a man of pru- us nothing to defend : we must acquire. dence. Fortune hath great influence, nay, And to this work you yourselves alone are the whole influence, in all human affairs : equal. but then, were I to chuse, I should prefer This, then, is my opinion. You should the fortune of Athens (if you yourselves raise fupplies; you should take the field will afiert your own cause, with the lealt with alacrity. Prosecutions should be all degree of vigour) to this man's fortune. suspended until you have recovered your For we have many better reasons to de- . affairs; let each man's sentence be deterpend upon the favour of Heaven, than this mined by his actions : honour those who man. But our present state is, in my opi- have deserved applause ; let the iniquitous nion, a state of total inactivity; and he meet their punishment: let there be no who will not exert his own strength, can- pretences, no deficiencies on your part; not apply for aid, either to his friends or for you cannot bring the actions of others to the gods. It is not then surprising, that to a severe scrutiny, unless you have first he wio is himself ever amidst the dangers been careful of your own duty. What inaid labours of the field; who is every- deed can be the reason, think ye, that

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