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which was the system of his brother, he never lost sight of that great object, keeping up the sources of national strength and wealth. He was a great master of the commercial and political interests of this country, and de servedly raised to the peerage.” Mr. Coxe adds, that his moral conduct was irreproachable; that he was sincere in his belief of Christianity, and zealous and constant in pere forming the duties of religion; and that he maintained an unimpeachable character for truth and integrity, as well in his public as in his private capacity
He wrote many political pieces, “ with knowledge, but in a bad style,” as his nephew says, “yet better than his speeches." Among these are, 1. “ The case of the Hessian troops in the pay of Great Britain," Lond. 1730. 2. 6. The loterest of Great Britain steadily pursued, in answer to a pamphlet, entitled “ The case of the Hanover forces, impartially and freely examined, Part I.” 1743. This - Case" was written by lord Chesterfield and Mr. Waller. 3. “ A Letter to a certain distinguished patriot and applauded orator, on the publication of his celebrated speech on the Seaford petition, in the Magazines,” &c. 1748. 4. " Complaints of the Manufacturers, relating to the abuses in marking the sheep, &c.” 1752. 5. “ Answer to the latter part of lord Bolingbroke's Letters on the study of history," printed in 1763. Some other pamphlets are attributed to lord Walpole in our authority, but rather on doubtful evidence.!
WALPOLE (HORACE), third and youngest son of sir Robert Walpole, first earl of Orford, by his first wife Catherine Shorter, was born in 1718, and received the early part of his education at Eton, where he first became known to the celebrated Mr. Gray, whose friendship at that early period he cultivated, and whose esteem and regard he retained, until the difference arose between them which we have noticed in our account of that celebrated poet. From Eton he went to King's-college, Cambridge; but, according to the practice of men of rank and fortune at that time, left the university witbout taking any degree. While there he wrote “ Verses in Memory of King Henry the Sixth, founder of the college," which are dated Feb. 2, 1738, and are probably the first production of his pen, In the same year he was appointed inspector-general of 1 Çoxe's Memoirs of Walpole. -Park's edition of the Royal and Noble Authors, the exports and imports ; a place which he soon after eschanged for that of usher of the exchequer. To these were added the post of comptroller of the pipe and clerk of the estreats; all which he held unto his death.
Finding himself disinclined to enter so early into the business of parliament, he prevailed on his father to permit him to go abroad, and Mr. Gray consented to accompany himn in his travels. They left England on the 29th of March, 1739, and took their route by the way of France to Italy, viewing whatever was remarkable in the several places they visited, and at soine of them, particularly Flo. rence, residing several months. About July 1741 the two friends came to a rupture, and parted at Reggio, each pursuing his journey homewards separately. Of this quarrel, the circumstances, as we have remarked in Mr. Gray's article, are not clearly known; but Mr. Walpole enjoined Mr. Mason to charge him with the chief blaire, confessing, that more attention, complaisance, and deference, to a warm friendship, and superior judgment and prudence, might have prevented a rupture which gave much uneasiness to them both, and a lasting concern to the survivor. A reconciliation is said to have been effected between them by a lady who wished well to both parties; but the cordiality which had subsisted between thein never wholly returned, as Mr. Walpole was entirely unnoticed by Mr. Gray in bis last will. Mr. Walpole, however, was the first person to whom, in 1750, Mr. Gray communicated his celebrated “ Elegy in a Country Church-yard,” and by him it was communicated to several persons of distinction. In 1758, also, Walpole employed Mr. Bentley to orna. ineut an edition of his friend's poems with beautiful designs and engravings, and printed it at his own press at Strawberry-hill.
On Mr. Walpole's return to England, he was chosen member for Callington, in the parliament which met in June 1741, and had soon an opportunity of evincing, that he was not likely to become either a silent or inactive member. On the 23d of March 1741-2, on a motion being made for an inquiry into the conduct of sir Robert Walpole for the preceding ten years, he opposed the proposition in a speech of some length, with great spirit, and greatly to the credit of his filial piety. He was not, however, a fre. quent speaker, and had no great relish for parliamentary duties. In 1747, he was chosen for the borough of Castle Rising, and for King's Lynn, in 1754 and 1761.
The tenor of his life was not much varied by accident or adventure; though about 1749 he narrowly escaped the pistol of a highwayman, the relation of which we shall give in his own words, in one of his “ Worlds.” “An acquaintance of mine was robbed a few years ago, and very near shot through the head by the going-off of the pistol of the accomplished Mr. Maclean ; yet the whole atfair was conducted with the greatest good-breeding on both sides. The robber, who had only taken a purse this way because he had that morning been disappointed of marrying a great fortune, no sooner returned to bis lodgings, than he sent the gentleman two letters of excuses, which with less wit than the epistles of Voiture, had ten times more natural and easy politeness in the turn of their expression. In the postscript he appointed a meeting at Tyburn at twelve at night, where the gentleman might purchase again any trifes he had lost; and my friend has been blamed for not accepting the rendezvous, as it seemed liable to be construed by ill-natured people into a doubt of the honour of a man who had given him all the satisfaction in his power for having unluckily been near shooting him through the
“ The World” was a well-known periodical paper, in which he assisted the editor Mr. Moore, by writing Nos. 6, 8, 10, 14, 28, 103, 168, 195, and the concluding “ World Extraordinary,” containing the character of Henry Fox, then secretary at war, afterwards lord Holland.
In 1752, his first publication (except some Poems in Dodsley's collection, and a jeu d'esprit in the “ Museum”) appeared, entitled “ Ædes Walpoliana,” describing his father's magnificent palace at Houghton, in Norfolk, and the noble collection of pictures it contained, which the pecuniary embarrassments of the late earl of Orford (Mr.. Walpole's nephew) obliged him to dispose of to the empress of Russia. It is remarkable that Mr. Walpole, as appears by one of his letters in the British Museum, with all his family-partiality and taste for the arts, thought the value of this collection greatly over-rated.
In 1757 he published " A Letter from Xo-Ho, a Chinese philosopher at London, to bris friend Lien-Chi at Pekin : a spirited and elegant performance, chiefly on ibe politics of the day. It went through five editions in a fortnight.
This year he set up a printing-press at Strawberry-bill,
at which most of his own performances, and some curious works of other authors were printed. Its first production was Gray's Odes, and this was followed by the edition and translation of part of Hentzner's Travels, lord Whitworth's account of Russia, Life of Lord Herbert of Cherbury, &c. By limiting the number of copies of each work, and parting with them only as presents, he created a species of fame and curiosity after the productions of his press, which was then quite new, and unquestionably very gratifying to himself. We need not analyze this kind of reputation, as it is now better known in ours than in his days. In this way, in 1761, he printed at Strawberry-hill two volumes of his « Avecdotes of Painting in England,” compiled from the papers of Mr. George Vertue, purcbased at the sale of the effects of that industrious antiquary. It will be allowed, that the remains of Mr. Vertue could not have fallen into better hands. In 1763, another volume was added, and also the Catalogue of Engravers; and, in 1771, the whole was completed in a fourth volume, to which was added “ The History of the Modern Taste in Gardening.” In 1764, on the dismission of general (afterward marshal) Conway from the army for a vote given in parliament, he defended his friend's conduct in a pamphlct, entitled “A Counter Address to the Public, on the late dismission of a general officer," sro.
In the succeeding year, he published “ The Castle of Otranto,” a gothic story, which in the title-page was' asserted to be a translation from the Italian by William Marshal, gent. In the same year, however, a second edition appeared, with the initials of the real author, Mr. Walpole. In 1766 he is supposed to have indulged his vein of bumour in “An account of the Giants lately discovered, in a letter to a friend in the country.”
In 1766, happened the famous quarrel between David Hume and John Jacques Rousseau, in which the former appears to have acted with the most distinguished generosity, friendship, and delicacy; and the latter, with his usual suspicion, wildness, and eccentricity. On this occasion, Mr. Walpole wrote a pretended letter from the king of Prussia to Rousseau, which found its way into the public prints, and contributed to widen the breach between the two contending philosophers. As a jew d'esprit this composition did honour to his wit; but it has been delicately said that had 'he suppressed it, his reputation for a conciliatory disposition, and true benevolence of mind, would Lave lost nothing of its lustre.
Previously to the dissolution of parliament, in 1763, Mr. Walpole had determined to retire from public business; and, accordingly, in a very handsome letter to the mayor of Lynn, declined the honour of representing his constituents any longer.
The same year, Mr. Walpole published his “ Historic Doubts of the Life and Reign of King Richard III.” 4to. This performance endeavours to establish the favourable idea given of this monarch by sir George Buck, the bistorian; but this defence did not receive universal assent: it was controverted in various quarters, and generally con. sidered as more ingenious than solid. It was answered by Frederick Guy Dickens, esq. in a 4to volume; and the evidence from the wardrobe-roll was controverted by Dr. Milles and Mr, Masters, in papers read before the Society of Antiquaries; and now it was discovered that Mr. Walpole, who affected the utmost humility as an author, and most politely deferred to the opinion of others, could not bear the least contradiction, and one or both of these latter pieces gave bim so inuch disgust, that he ordered his name to be struck out of the list of members, and renounced the bonour annexed to it from bis connection with the body of antiquaries. Yet in this plausible work, the character of Richard is in some measure cleared from many of the enormities charged upon him by bistorians and poets ; and, particularly, the absurdity of representing him as a mass of personal deformity, is justly exposed.
It was about this time that the transaction took place for which he has suffered the greatest censure, though, when every circumstance is duly weighed, perhaps but little blame will attach to bis memory. We allude to the affair of Chatterton, whose fate was attributed by many to the neglect and supercilious behaviour of Mr. Walpole. How justly, we have already given our opinion. (See CHATTRRTON, p. 183-4), and from that opinion we are not disposed to depart, although, from subsequent information, it may be allowed that Walpole bad in scarcely any instance in his life displayed the liberality of patronage, and in very few, the steadiness of friendship
In 1768, Mr. Walpole printed fifty copies of his tragedy of the "Mysterious Motber," which, as usual, were distributed among his particular friends, but with injunc