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one daughter, Anne, married to sir Philip Harcourt, from whom is descended the present earl of that name. Of the family of sir William's third wife, we are not informed.
Sir William Waller was elected a member of the long parliament for Andover; and having suffered under the severity of the star-chamber, on the occasion of a private quarrel with one of his wife's relations, as well as imbibed in the course of his foreign service early and warm prejudices in favour of the presbyterian disciplive, he became a determined opponent of the court. While employed at the head of the parliamentary forces, under the earl of Essex, he was deputed to the command of the expedition against Portsmouth, when colonel Goring, returning to his duty, declared a resolution of holding that garrison for his majesty. In this enterprise, sir William conducted himself with such vigour and ability, that he reduced the garrison in a shorter time and upon better terms than could have been expected; and afterwards obtained the direction of several other expeditions, in which he likewise proved remarkably successful. After many signal advantages, however, he sustained some defeats by the king's forces, particularly at Roundway Down near the Devizes, and at Cropready bridge in Ösfordshire. On each of those occasions, the blame was thrown by him on the jealousy of other officers; and neither the spirit nor the judgment of his own operations were ever questioned. The independents, who were becoming the strongest party, both in the army and the parliament, had wished bim to become their general, on terms which, either from conscience or military honour, he could not comply with. By the famous self-denying ordinance he was removed from his .command, but still maintained so great an influence and reputation in the army, as rendered him not a little formidable to the rising party; and he was thenceforth considered as a leader of the presbyterians against the designs of the independents. He was one of the eleven members impeached of high treason by the army. This forced him to withdraw for some time; but be afterwards resumed his seat in parliament, until, in 1648, with fifty others, he was expelled by the army, and all of them committed to different prisons, on suspicion of attachment to the royal cause. He was afterwards committed to custody on suspicion of being engaged in sir George Booth's insurrection, in Aug. 1658, but in November was released upon bail,
la Feb. 1659 he was nominated one of the council of state, and was elected one of the representatives of Middlesex, in the parliament which began April 25, 1660. He died at Osterley-park in Middlesex, Sept. 19, 1668, and was buried in the chapel in Totbill-street, Westminster. Mr. Seward very erroneously says he was buried in the Abs bey-church at Barb. It is his first wife who was buried there, but there is a monumental statue of sir William, as well as of the lady, which perhaps occasioned the mistake. There is a tradition that when James II. visited the Abbey, he defaced the nose of sir William upon
this monument, which Mr. Waroer in his “ History of Bath" allows to be defaced, but Mr. Seward asserts that “there appear at present no traces of any disfigurement.” Of a circumstance so easily ascertained, it is singular there should be two opinions. Anthony Wood gives, as the literary performances of sir William Waller, some of his letters and dispatches respecting his victories, but the only article which seems to belong to that class is bis “Divine meditations upon several occasions ; with a daily directory," Lond. 1680, 8vo. These were written during his retirement, and give a very faithful picture of his honest sentiments, and of his frailties and failings. Wood also mentions bis “Vindication for taking up arms against the king,” left behind in manuscript, in which state it remained until 1793, when it was published under the title of " Vindication of the Character and Conduct of sir William Waller, knight; commander in chief of the parliament forces in the West : explanatory of his conduct in taking up arms against king Charles I. Written by hiinself. And now first published from the original manuscript. With an introduction by the editor," syo. The MS. came from one of the noble families descended from him. It appears to be written with great sincerity, as well as precision, and contains many interesting particulars, relative to the democratical parties which struggled for superiority after the king had fallen into their power. The style seems to bear a stronger resemblance to that of the age of James the First, or his immediate predecessor, than to the mode of composition generally practised in England about the middle of the last century. If any thing can confirm the declaration that sir William was actuated solely by disinterested motives, it is the veneration which he professes to entertain -for the constitution of his country.
He avows himself a sincere friend to the British form of government, consisting of king, lords, and commons; and it appears, that, from the beginning, his imputed apostacy from the cause of public freedom, or rather of democratical tyranny, ought justly to be ascribed to the cabals of the republican leaders, and not to any actual change which had ever taken place in bis own sentiments. The volume, indeed, is not only valuable as an ingenuous and explicit vindication, but as a composition abounding with shrewd observations, and rendered interesting by the singular manner, as well as the information of the author, who seems to have been no less a man of vivacity and good sense, than of virtue and learning.'
WALLIS (John), an eminent English mathematician, was born Nov. 23, 1616, at Ashford in Kent, of which place his father of the same names was then minister *, but did not survive the birth of this his eldest son above six years. He was now left to the care of his mother, who purchased a house at Ashford for the sake of the education of her children, and placed him at school there, until the plague, which broke out in 1625, obliged her to remove him to Ley Green, in the parish of Tenterden, under the tuition of one James Movat or Mouat, a native of Scotland, who instructed him in grammar. Mr. Movat, says Dr. Wallis, “was a very good schoolmaster, and his scholar I continued for divers years, and was by him well grounded in the technical part of grammar, so as to understand the rules and the grounds and reasons of such rules, with the use of them in such authors, as are usually read in grammar schools : for it was always my affectation even from a child, in all parts of learning or knowledge, not merely to learn by rote, which is soon forgotten, but 10 know the grounds or reasons of what I learn, to inform my judgment as well as furnish my memory, and thereby make a better impression on both." In 1630 he lost this instructor, who was engaged to attend two young gentlemen on their travels, and would gladly have taken his pupil Wallis with them; but his mother not consenting on account of his youth, he was sent to Felsted school in Essex, of which the learned Mr. Martin Holbeach was then master. During the Christmas holidays in 1631, he went home to his mother at Ashford, where finding that one of his brothers had been learning to cypher, he was inquisitive to know what that meant, and applying diligently was enabled to go through all the rules with success, and prosecuted this study at spare hours on his return to Felsted, where also he was instructed in the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew tongues, and in the rudiments of logic, music, and the French language.
* Mr. Wallis iras son of Robert and and other occasional sermons, and his Ellen Wallis of Thingdon (or, as it is catechising and otherwise instructing usually pronounced, Fyenden) in the the younger sort, he did, with some of county of Northampton, and was born the most eminent neighbouring minis. there in January 1587, and baptized ters, maintain a week-day lecture, on the 18th of that mopih. He was edu. Saturday, their market-day; which was cated in Trinity college in Cambridge, much frequented, beside a numerous where he took ihe degrees of B. A. and auditory of others, by very many of M. A. and about the same time en- : the neighbour-ministers, the justices tered into holy orders, in the reign of the peace, and others of the gentry; of queen Elizabeth. Toward the end who after sermon did use to dine at an of that queen's reign he was roade min ordinary, and there confer, as there nister of Ashford, a market-lown in was occasion, about such affairs as Kent, where he continued the re- might concern the welfare and good mainder of his life in great esteem and government of that town and the parts reputation, not only in that town and adjacent, wherein they were respec. parish, but with the clergy, gentry, tively concerned.” He died at Ashand nobility, round abont. “ He was,” ford November 30, and was buried Desays Dr. Wallis, “ a pious, prudent, cember 3, 1622. By his wife Joanna, learned, and orthodox divine, an emi. daughter of Henry and Sarah Chapnent and diligent preacher; and with man of Godmersham in Kent, he had bis prudept carriage kept that great three sons : John, the eldest, the subtown in very good order, and promoted ject of this article, Henry and Wilpiety to a great degree. Beside bis liam ; and two daughters, Sarah and preaching twice on the Lord's Day, Ellen.
All, Ox. vol. 11.-Vindication of Sir W. Waller.-Critical Review, 1793.
In 1632 he was sent to Cambridge, and admitted of Emanuel college, under the tuition first of Mr. Anthony Burgess, afterwards rector of Sutton Colfield; next of Thomas Horton, afterwards master of Queen's college, and lastly of the celebrated Benjamin Whichcot. It is not improbable that he had his divivity from the first two, and somewbat of his style from the last of these tutors. At his first entrance upon academical studies, he was reconciled to having staid a year or two longer at school than appeared necessary, or than he liked, since he found that owing to the knowledge he had accumulated in that time, he was now able to keep pace with those who were some years his seniors. “I found," he says, “that beside the improvement of what skill I had in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages (which I pursued with diligence) and other philo-, logic studies, my first business was to be the study of logic. In this I soon became master of a syllogism, as to its structure and the reason of its consequences, however cryptically proposed, so as not easily to be imposed on by fallacious or false syllogisms, when I was to answer or defend;
and to manage an argument with good advantage, when I was to argue or oppose ; and to distinguish ambiguous words or sentences, as there was occasion ; and was able to hold pace with those, who were some years nay seniors, and had obtained the reputation of a good disputant. And indeed I had the good hap all along, both at school and in the university, to be reputed (if not equal) not much inferior to those of the best of my rank. From logic I proceeded to ethics, physics, and metaphysics (consulting the schoolmen on such points), according to the methods of philosophy then in fashion in that university. And I took into the speculative part of physic and anatomy, as parts of natural philosophy; and, as Dr. Glisson (then public professor of physic in that university) hath since told me, I was the first of his sons, who, in a public disputation, maintained the circulation of the blood, which was then a new doctrine, though I had no design of practising physic. And I had then imbibed the principles of what they now call the new philosophy ; for I made no scruple of diverting from the common road of studies then in fashion to any part of useful learning; presumning that knowledge is no burthen; and, if of any part thereof I should afterwards have no occasion to make use, it would at least do me no hurt; and what of it I might or might not have occasion for, I could not then foresee. On the same account I diverted also to astronomy and geography, as parts of natural philosophy, and to other parts of mathematics; though at that time they were scarce looked upon with us as academical studies then in fashion. As to divinity, on which I had an eye from the first, I had the happiness of a strict and religious education all along from a child. Whereby I was not only preserved from vicious courses, and acquainted with religious exercises, but was early instructed in the principles of religion and catechetical divinity, and the frequent reading of scripture and other good books, and diligent attendance on sermons: and whatever other studies i followed, I was careful not to neglect this : and became timely acquainted with systematic and polemic divinity, and had the repute of a good proficient therein." The length of this extract we trust will be excused, as it is but seldom we attain that interesting part of biography, the progress of early studies.
Soon after his admittance into Emanuel college, he was chosen of the foundation, and admitted a scholar of the