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attached to this see, Dr. Warner resigned his deanery and his prebend, besides a donative of 2001. per annum in Kent, probably Barham, or Bishops-bourne, of which, it is said, he was parson. In 1640 he assisted the king with 1500l. on the Scotch invasion of England, and gave his attendance, when there was only one prelate besides himself in the council at York. The same year he had the courage to oppose the præmunire in the House of Peers, and asserted the rights of the bishops sitting in parliament. With equal zeal he joined in the declaration made by some others of his brethren, May 14, 1641, to maintain and defend, as far as lawfully they might, with their life, power, and estate, the true reformed protestant religion, expressed in the doctrine of the Church of England, against all popery and popish innovation within this realm ; and maintain and defend bis majesty's royal person, honour, and estate ; also the power and privilege of parliainents, the lawful rights and liberties of the subjects, and endeavour to preserve the union and peace between the kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

All this opposition to the changes then proposed soom appeared to be fruitless, and in August of the same year he was impeached with twelve other bishops, for acting in the convocation of 1640, making then canons and constitutions, and granting his majesty a benevolence. On this occasion his brethren unanimously relied on bishop Warner's talents for their defence, which he undertook with spirit, but their total subversion being determined, nothing availed. He coutinued, however, inflexible in his adherence to the cause of his sovereign, at whose command, not long before his death, the bishop wrote a treatise against the ordinance of the sale of church lands, which was printed in 1646 and 1648, 4to, under the title “ Church Lands not to be sold,” &c. After the death of Charles I. likewise, our prelate published several sermons against that illegal act. And baving maintained his consistency so far as to refuse to pay any tax or loan to the parliament, his estate, ecclesiastical and temporal, was sequestered, his books seized, and by a singular refinement in robbery, all bonds due to him from any person whatever were released. He would probably also have been imprisoned, had he not escaped into Wales, where he led for three years a wandering and insecure life, but wherever he had opportunity, constantly performed the duties of his episcopal function, which he also did wherever he might happen to be, till the restoration.

After his majesty's garrisons were given up he was forced to compound for his temporal estate, now four years sequestered, at the rate of the tenth part real and personal; but all oaths to the usurping goveroment he refused to the last ; and baving, although after a heavy deduction, saved a considerable part of his estate, he devoted it to the assistance of his suffering brethren, and was a great support to such of the sequestered clergy and their families as were reduced to absolute poverty. Of this, bishop Kennet, in his life of Somner, affords the following proof and instance: “ When in the days of usurpation an honest friend paid a visit to him (Warner), and upon bis lordship's importunity told him freely the censures of the world, as being of a close and too thrifty a temper, the bishop produced a roll of distressed clergy, whom in their ejectmenis he had relieved with no less than eight thousand pounds; and inquired of the same friend, whether he knew of any other like objects of charity; upon which motion the gentleman soon after by letter recomiended a sequestered divine, to whom at the first address he gave 100l.

He sent 100l. to Charles II. in his exile, designing to continue remitting money as he could afford it, but he was betrayed by his servant, who discovered the matter to Cromwell, and he would have suffered for it, bad he not prevajled on the treacherous informer, by inoney, to go into Ireland. On the restoration, bishop Warner was replaced in the see of Rochester, and enjoyed it till his decease on Oct. 11, 1666. He was interred in Rochester cathedral, where a handsome monument was soon after erected to his memory in a small chapel, at the east end of the north aile.

He married the widow of Dr. Robert Abbot, bishop of Salisbury, and had issue by her one daughter, bis heiress, who by her busband, Thomas Lee, of London, had a son, John, to whom and his sons bishop Warner bequeathed so considerable an estate as surprised those who knew the extent of his charities, and the small income arising from his bishopric. Nor will that surprise be much diminished by the fact, that when young he had 16,0001. lett biin by a relation, who was his god-mother, for if we take into account what he suffered by the usurpation, and what he gave to his distressed brethren during that period, it will yet appear surprising that he was enabled to exert his charity and

munificence to such a vast amount as appears was the case. To account for this, some have accused him of parsimony, but for this there is no proof, and the greater part of what he gave was given at various periods in his life-time; but others have with more probability supposed that he lived on the profits, small as they were, of bis bishopric, while the produce of his estates was accumulating. Be this as it may, we have the following items of nearly twenty thousand pounds, which he expended or bequeathed to the following objects : To the demies of Magdalen college, Oxford, in eleven years

- - £1,100 - repairing St. Paul's, London - - 1,050 The redemption of captives, &c.

2,500 Library of Magdalen college

1,200 Cathedral of Canterbury, for fonts and library

1,200 Rochester, towards a library - - 500 Repairs of that cathedral, and by his will

- 1,000 For augmenting poor vicarages in the diocese of Rochester 2,000 Paid by his executors for the building of Bromley college 8,500 For repairs of the palace


19,850 Bromley college above-mentioned was founded by him for the residence and maintenance of twenty widows of loyal and orthodox clergymen. By his will he empowered his executors, sir Orlando Bridgman, and sir Philip Warwick, to raise a sum of money adequate to the purposes of such a building, out of his personal estate, and charged his manor of Swayton with the annual payment of 450l. viz. 50l. per ann. for the chaplain, and 20l. each for the widows. The founder bad expressed a desire that this building should be erected as near to Rochester as conveniently might be; but as no healthy or convenient spot could be obtained near that town, the present site was chosen at the north end of the town of Bromley, under the sanction of an act of parliameut passed in 1670; and by other subsequent benefactions the institution has been brought to its present useful state. Another of bishop Warner's foundations was that of four scholarships in Baliol college, Oxford, for four young men of Scotland, to be chosen from time to time by the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of Rochester. Each was to have 20l. yearly until M. A. when they were to return to their own country in boly orders, “that there may never be wanting in Scotland some VOL. XXXI.


who shall support the ecclesiastical establishment of Eng. land.” Owing to some demur on the part of this college, these scholars were first placed in Gloucester ball (now Worcester college), and there was a design to have made that a college for their use; but, in the mastership of Dr. Thomas Good, in 1672, they were removed to Baliol.

Bishop Warner is said to have been an accurate logician, philosopher, and well versed in the fathers and schoolmen. He was a man of a decided character, equally cheerful and undaunted. In his manner he had less of the courtier than of the kind friend, always performing more than he professed. Of his religious principles the only evidence we have is in a letter addressed to bishop Jeremy Taylor, in defence of the doctrine of original sin, which that prelate had endeavoured to explain away in a manner totally inconsistent with the tenets of the church, as laid down in hér liturgy, articles, and homilies, Warner was of the school of Abbot, and less likely to adopt Arminianism, although he was personally attached to its great frieng archbishop Laud.'

WARNER (JOSEPH), an eminent surgeon, was born in the island of Antigua, in 1717, on the family estate, which he inherited, together with a ring, famous in history, as the one given by queen Elizabeth to the earl of Essex, and which in the hour of impending danger he entrusted to the countess of Nottingham, who never delivered it to the queen, and this, according to the story, was the cause of Essex's losing his life. By some means this ring bad regularly descended, together with the estate, in the Warner family. Mr. Warner was sent to England at an early age, and educated at Westminster school. At the age of seventeen he was apprenticed to the celebrated surgeon, Samuel Sharpe, and after residing seven years with bim, was admitted joint lecturer in anatomy at St. Thomas's hospital .. with Mr. Sharpe, after whose resignation Mr. Warner continued the lectures for several years. In 1746, during the rebellion in Scotland, he volunteered his professional sera vices, and joined the royal army under the duke of Cumberland. In the course of that campaign he was recalled to London to fill the office of surgeon to Guy's hospital, a situation which he held, with increasing reputation, and

I Ath. Ox. vol. II.-Burnet's Own Times, Biog. Brit. -Fuller's Worthies, Barwick's Life.-Lysons's Environs, in which is the first engraved portrait of Warner.-Chalmers's Hist, of Oxford.-Bunney's Life of bishop Taylor.

great professional success, for the long period of forty-four years. During this time his private practice became extensive, and his fame was increased by his valuable treatises on the cataract, the hydrocele, &c. and bis still more valuable volume of “ Cases in Surgery," 1754, &c. In 1756 he was elected a fellow of the royal society, in whose Transactions a number of his communications were published. In 1764 he was elected a member of the court of assistants of the then corporation of surgeons, and in 1771, became one of the court of examiners, in which office he continued to discharge his duty most punctually until the last month of his life.

He died at his house in Hatton-garden, July 24, 1801, in the eighty-fifth year of his life, without much illness, but of the mere effects of age, and retained his faculties to the last. He left a very estimable character, both as to professional and private merit. He was among the earliest teachers of anatomy, whose Jabours have greatly contri. buted to lessen the necessity of going abroad, and have rendered London at the present day the first chirurgical school in the world.'

WARNER (RICHARD)), who merits notice for his regard to the science of botany, and the respect and honour he ever shewed to the lovers of it, was the son of John Warner, a banker, who is somewhere mentioned by Addison or Steele, as having always worn black leather garters buckled under the knee, a custom most religiously observed by our author, who in no other instance affected singularity. He . was born in 1711, educated at Wadham college, Oxford, and being bred to the law, had chambers in Lincoln's Inn, but possessing a genteel fortune, he principally resided in an ancient family seat with an extensive garden belonging to it, on Woodford Green, in Essex. Here he maintained a botanical garden, was very successful in the cultivation of rare exotics, and was not unacquainted with indigenous plants. The herborizations of the company of apothecaries were, once in the season, usually directed to the environs of Woodford, where, after the researches of the day, at the table of Mr. Warner, the products of Flora were displayed. The result of the investigations made in that neighbourhood was printed for private distribution by Mr. Warner, under the title “Plantæ Woodfordienses; or a

I Gent. Mag. vol. LXXI.

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