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turned out, and among them Mr. Greaves, the Savilian professor of astronomy, who had a little before distinguished himself by his work upon the Egyptian pyramids. Mr. Greaves laboured to procure Ward for his successor, whose abilities in this way were universally known and acknowledged, and effected it. Ward then entered himself of Wadham-college, for the sake of Dr. Wilkins, who was the warden ; and, Oct. 1649, was incorporated master of arts. At this time there were several learned men of the university, and in the city, who often met at the warden's lodgings in Wadham college, and sometimes elsewhere, to improve themselves by making philosophical experiments. Among these were Dr. Wilkins and Mr. Ward, Mr. Robert Boyle, Dr. Willis, Dr. Goddard, Dr. Wallis, Dr. Bathurst, Mr. Rooke, &c. Besides reading his astronomical lectures, Mr. Ward preached frequently, though not obliged to it, for sir Henry Savile had exempted his professors from all university exercises, that they might have the more leisure to attend to the employment he designed them for. Mr. Ward's sermons were strong, methodical, and clear, and sometimes pathetic and eloquent.
Soon after his arrival at Oxford, he took the engagement, or oath, to be faithful to the commonwealth of England, as it was then established, without a king or house of lords : for, though he had refused the covenant while the king was supposed to be in any condition of succeeding, yet, now these hopes were at an end, and the government, together with the king, was overturned, he thought that no good purpose could be answered by obstinately holding out any longer against the powers that were. In the mean time his first object was to bring the astronomy-lectures, which had long been neglected and disused, into repute again; and for this purpose he read them very constantly, never missing one reading-day all the while be held the lecture.
About this time, Dr. Brownrig, the ejected bishop of Exeter, lived retired at Sunning in Berkshire; where Mr. Ward, who was his chaplain, used often to wait upon him. In one of these visits, the bishop conferred on him the precentorship of the church of Exeter; and told him, that, though it might then seem a gift and no gift, yet that upon the king's restoration, of which the bishop was confident, it would be of some emolument to him. He paid the bishop's secretary tlie full fees, as if he were immediately to take
possession, though this happened in the very height of their despair; and Ward's acquaintance rallied him upon it, telling him that they would not give him half a crown for his precentorship. But the professor knew that, let things take what turn they would, he was now safe; and that, if the king ever returned, it would be a valuable promotion, and in fact it afterwards laid the foundation of his future riches and preferment.
In 1654, both the Savilian professors performed their exercise in order to proceed doctors in divinity; and, when they were to be presented, Wallis claimed precedency. (See WALLIS.) This occasioned a dispute; which being decided in favour of Ward, who was really the senior, Wallis went out grand compounder, and by that means obtained the precedency. In 1657 he was elected principal of Jesus-college by the direction of Dr. Mansell, who had been ejected from that headship many years before; but Cromwell put in one Francis Howell, with a promise of 80l. a year to Dr. Ward, which was never paid. In 1659 he was chosen president of Trinity college, although absolutely disqualified for the office, and was therefore obliged, at the restoration, to resign it. At that time, however, he was presented to the vicarage of St. Lawrence-Jewry: for, though he was not distinguished by his sufferings during the exile of the royal family, yet he was known to be so averse to the measures of the late times, and to be so well affected to the royal cause, that his compliances were forgiven. He was installed also, in 1660, in the precentorship of the church of Exeter. In 1661 he became fellow of the Royal Society, and dean of Exeter; and the follow ing year was advanced to the bishopric of that church. Dr. Pope tells us, he was promoted to that see, without knowing any thing of it, by the interest of the duke of Albemarle, sir Hugh Pollard, and other gentlemen, whom he had obliged during his residence at Exeter.
In 1667 he was translated to the see of Salisbury; and, in 1671, was made chancellor of the order of the garter, being the first protestant bishop that held that office, which he procured to be annexed to the see of Salisbury, after it had been held by laymen above a hundred and fifty years. Bishop Davenant had endeavoured 10 procure the same, but failed, principally owing to the troubles coming on. Ward's first care, after his advancement to Salisbury, was to repair and beautify his cathedral and palace ; and then to suppress the nonconformists and their conventicles in his diocese. This so enraged their party, that, in 1669, they forged a petition against him, under the bands of some chief clothiers ; pretending, that they were persecuted, and their trade ruined: but it was made appear at the council-table that this petition was a notorious libel, and that none of those there mentioned to be persecuted and ruined, were so much as summoned into the ecclesiastical court *.
Bishop Ward was one of those unhappy persons who bave the misfortune to outlive their faculties. He dated his indisposition of health from •a fever in 1660, of which he was not well cured; and, the morning he was consecrated bishop of Exeter in 1662, he was so ill, that he did not imagine he should outlive the solemnity. After he was bishop of Salisbury he was seized with a dangerous -scorbutical atrophy and looseness : but this was removed by riding-exercise. Yet, in course of time, melancholy and loss of memory gradually came upon him; which, joined with some difference he had with Dr. Pierce, the dean of his church, to whom he had refused an unreasonable request, and who pursued him with great virulence and inalice, at length totally deprived him of all sense. He lived to the Revolution, but without knowing any thing of that event, although he subscribed in May 1688 the bishops' petition against reading king James's declaration of liberty of conscience, and died at Knightsbridge Jan. 6, 1689, in the seventy-second year of his age. He was interred in his cathedral at Salisbury, where a monument was erected to his memory, by his nephew, Seth Ward, treasurer of the church. The bishop died unmarried.
Mr. Oughtred, in the preface to his “ Clavis Mathema
“ Let this be said once for all, true, he was for the act against cor that he was no violent man, nor of a venticles, and laboured mach to get it persecuting spirit, aş these petitioners past, not without the order and direpresented him ; but if at any time rection of the greatest authority both he was more active than ordinary civil and ecclesiastical, not out of enagainst the dissenters, it was by ex- mity to the dissenters persons, as they press command from the Court, some. unjustly suggested, but love to the retimes by letters, and sometimes given pose and welfare of the government; in charges by the judges of the as. for be believed if the growth of them sizes, which councils allered fre- were not timely suppressed, it would quently, now in favour of the dis- either cause a necessity of a standing senters, and then again in opposition army to preserve the peace, or a gene. to them; as it is well known to ral toleration, which would end in po. those who lived then, and had the pery, whither all things then bad an apleast insight into public affairs. It is parent tendency.” Pope's Life of Ward.
tica,” calls him “a prudent, pious, and ingenious, person; admirably skilled, not only in mathematics, but also in ali kinds of polite literature.” Mr. Oughtred informs us, that he was ihe first in Cambridge who had expounded his « Clavis Mathematica,” and that, at his importunate desire, he made additions to, and republished that work. Bishop Burnet says, “ Ward was a man of great reach, went deep in mathematical studies, and was a very dexterous man, if not too dexterous; for his sincerity was much questioned. He had complied during the late times, and held in by taking the covenant; so he was hated by the high men as a time-server. But the lord Clarendon saw, that most of the bishops were men of merit by their sufferings, but of no great capacity for business. So he brought Ward in, as a man fit to govern the church; and Ward, to get his former errors to be forgot, went into the high notions of a severe conformity, and became the most considerable man on the bishops bench. He was a profound statesman, but a very indifferent clergyman."
In the House of Lords he was esteemed an admirable speaker and a close reasoner, equal at least to the earl of Shaftesbury. He was a great benefactor to both his bishoprics, as by his interest the deanry of Burien; in Cornwall was annexed to the former, and the chancellorship of the garter to the latter. He was polite, hospitable, and geverous : and in his life-time, founded the college at Salisbury, for the reception and support of ministers' widows, and the sumptuous hospital at Buntingford, in Hertfordshire, the place of his birth. His intimate friend, Dr. Walter Pope, has given us a curious account of his life, interspersed with agreeable anecdotes of his friends. Pope's . zeal and style, however, provoked a severe pamphlet from Dr. Thomas Wood, a civilian, called “ An Appendix to the Life," 1679, 12mo, bound up, although rarely, with Pope's work.
Bishop Ward's works are, 1. “A Philosophical Essay towards an Eviction of the Being and Attributes of God, the Immortality of the Souls of Men, and the Truth and Authority of Scripture.” Oxford, 1652, 8vo. 2. “ De Cometis, ubi de Cometarum naturâ disseritur, Nova Cometarum Theoria, & novissimæ Cometæ historia proponitur. Prælectio Oxonii habita.” Oxford, 1653, 4to. 3. “ Inquisitio in Ismaelis Bullialdi Astronomiæ Philo. laicæ fundamenta.”' Printed with the book “ De Come
tis." 4. " Idea Trigonometriæ demonstratæ in usum juventutis Oxon.” Oxford, 1654, 4to. 5.“ Vindiciæ Academiarum : containing some brief Animadversions upon Mr. John Webster's Book styled The Examen of Academies.” Oxford, 1654, 4to. To this book is prefixed an Epistle written to the Author by one who subscribes himself N. S. and who is supposed to be Dr. John Wilkins, those two letters being the last of both his names. 6. " Appendix concerning what Mr. Hobbes and Mr. William Dell have published on the same Arguments.” Printed at the end of " Vindiciæ Academiarum.” 7. “In Thomæ Hobbii Philosophiam Exercitatio Epistolica. Ad ampliss. eruditissimumque virum D. Johannem Wilkinsium S.T.D Collegii Wadhamensis Gardianuin. Cui subjungitur Appendicula ad Calumnias ab eodem Hobbio (in sex Documentis nuperrimè editis) in Authorem congestas, Responsio.”. Oxford, 1656, 8vo. 8. “ Astronomia Geome. trica, ubi methodus proponitur, qui primariorum Plane. tarum Astronomia, sive Elliptica, sive circularis possit Geometricè absolvi.” London, 1656, 8vo, 9. Several Sermons: as I. Against Resistance of lawful Powers, preached November the 5th, 1661, on Rom. xiii. 2. II. Against the Anti-scripturists, preached February the 20th 1669, on 2 Tim. iii. 16. III. Concerning the siufulness, danger, and remedies of Infidelity, preached February the 16th, 1667, on Heb. iii. 12. London, 1670, Svo. IV. Sermon before the House of Peers at Westminster, October the 10th, 1666, on Eccles. ï. 9. V. Sermon concerning the strangeress, frequency, and desperate consequence of Impenitency, preached April the 1st, 1666, soon after the Plague, on Revel, ix. 20. VI. Sermon against Ingratitude, on Deut. xxxii. 6. VII. An Apology for the Mysteries of the Gospel, preached February the 16th, 1672, on Rom. i. 16. Some of which Sermons having been separately printed at several times, were all published in one volume at London, 1674, 8vo. VIII. The Christian's Victory over Death, preached at the funeral of George duke of Albemarle in the Collegiate church of Westminster, April the 30th, 1670, on 1 Cor. xv. 57. 'London, 1670, 410. IX. The Case of Joram, preached before the House of Peers, January the 30th, 1673, on 2 Kings vi. last verse. Lone :: don, 1674, 4to.
That by which he has chiefly signalized himself, as to astronomical invention, is his celebrated approximation to