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A NEW AND GENERAL
ALL (John), a learned physician and medical writer, was born at Powick, in Worcestershire, 1708. He was the son of Mr. John Wall, an opulent tradesman of the city of Worcester, who served the office of inayor in 1703. He received the early part of bis education at a grammar-school at Leigh-Sinton, and at the college school of Worcester, whence he was elected scholar of Worcester-college, Oxford, in June 1726. In 1735, he was elected fellow of Merton-college, soon after which he took the degree of bachelor of physic, and removed to the city of Worcester, where he was many years settled in practice. In 1759, he took the degree of M. D. Besides an ingenious " Treatise on the virtues of Malvern-waters,” which he brought into reputation, he enriched the repositories of medical knowledge with many valuable tracts, which, since his death, have been collected into àı octavo edition, by bis son, the present learned Dr. Martin Wall, F. R. S. clinical-professor of the university, and were printed at Oxford in 1780. He married Catherine youngest daughter of Martin Sandys, esq. of the city of Worcester, barrister at law, and uncle to the first lord Sandys. Dr. Wall was a man of extraordinary genius, which he improved by early and indefatigable industry in the pursuit of science; but he was more particularly eminent in those branches of natural philosophy which have an immediate connexion with the arts, and with medicine. He was distinguished likewise, through his whole life by an uncommon sweetness of manpers, and cheerfulness of disposition, which, still more than his great abilities, made his acquaintance courted, and his conversation sought, by persons of all ranks and ages. His practice, as a physician, was extended far
beyond the common circle of practitioners in the country, and he was particularly eminent for benevolence, courtesy, penetration, and success. His native country still boasts many monuments of the application of his eminent talents to her interests. To his distinguished skill in chemistry, and bis assiduous researches (in conjunction with some other chemists) to discover materials proper for the china-ware, the city of Worcester owes the establishment of its porcelain-manufacture. Besides the improvements he suggested and put in execution for the accommodation of visitors at Malvern, it was to his zeal and diligence the county of Worcester is in no small degree indebted for the advantages of the infirmary, which he regularly attended during his whole life. His principal amusement was painting, and it has been said of him, that, if he had not been one of the best physicians, he would have been the best painter of his age. Tbis praise is perhaps too high, yet his designs for the two frontispieces to “ Hervey's Meditations," that for Cambridge's “ Scribleriad," and for the East window of the ebapel of Oriel-college, Oxford, are very creditable specimens of his talents. He died at Bath, after a lingering disorder, June 27, 1776, and lies buried in the abbey-church. The tracts published by his son, are, 1. “Of the extraordinary effects of Musk in convulsive disorders.” 2. “ Of the use of the Peruvian Bark in the sınall-pox." 3. “Of the cure of the putrid sore-throat.” 4. “ Mr. Oram's account of the Norfolk-boy.” 5. “ Observations on that case, and on the efficacy of oil in wormcases." 6. “ Experiments and Observations on the Malvern-waters.” 7. “ Letters to Sir George Baker, &c. on the poison of lead, and the impregnation of cyder with that metal.” 8. “ A Letter to Dr. Heberden on the Angina Pectoris.” 9. “ Supplement; containing an account of the epidemic fever of 1740, 1741, and 1742.” The editor has enriched this publication with various notes, which discover an extensive acquaintance with the subjects in question, and a candid and liberal turn of mind. To the treatise on Malvern-waters Dr. Martin Wall has also subjoined an appendix of some length, containing an experimental inquiry into their nature; from which it appears, that the Holywell-water at Malvern owes its virtues principally to its extreme purity, assisted by the fixed air which it contains.'
I Nast's Hist of Worcestershire.--Month. Rev. vol. LXIV.-Chalmers's Kist. of Oxford.
WALL (WILLIAM), the able defender of infant-baptism, was born in 1646, but where educated, or any further par. ticulars of his early life, are not upon record. He was vicar of Shorebam in Kent, where he died in 1728, at the age of eighty-two, and was considerably advanced when be stept forth as the champion of infant-baptism, in opposition to Dr. John Gale, the ablest writer of his time on the baptist side. Mr. Wall published his “ History of Infant Baptism” in 1707; and Dr. Gale, in 1711, published “Reflection's” on it (See GALE.) In 1719, a friendly conference was held on the subject between him and Mr. Wall, which ended without any change of opinion on either side. Mr. Wall, in the same year, published his " Defence of the History of Infant Baptism,” which was accounted a performance of such ability and so decisive on the question, that the university of Oxford, to mark their high opinion of the book, and of the talents of the author, conferred on him the degree of D. D. in the following year. After his death were published " Critical Notes on the Old Testament, wherein the present Hebrew test is explained, and in mavy places amended, from the ancient versions, more particularly from that of the LXX. To which is prefixed, a large introduction, adjusting the authority of the Maso. retic Bible, and vindicating it from the objections of Mr. Wbiston, and the author of the Grounds and Reasons of the Christian Religion. By the late learned William Wall, D. D, author of the “ History of Infant Baptism,” 1733, 2 vols. 8vo.
Dr. Wall stands confessedly at the head of those writers who have supported the practice of infant-baptism; and his antagonists Gale, Whiston, and the baptist historian Crosby, all unite in praising his candour and piety. He was vicar of Shorebam for the long space of fifty-two years. He once had an offer of a living of 300l. a year, Chelsfield, three miles from Shorehamn, which his conscience would not allow him to accept ; but he afterwards consented to take one of about one fifth the value, at twelve miles distance, that of Milton, near Gravesend. By an only daughter, Mrs. Catherine Waring, of Rochester, he had sixteen grand-children. This lady communicated some anecdotes of her father, printed in Atterbury's Correspondence, by which it appears that he was a man of a faceLious turn, and there are some of his letters to Atterbury in that correspondence. He was such a zealot for this pre
late', that he would have lighted up all Whittlebury-forest, in case of bis recall, at his own expence.'
WALLACE (Sir William), a celebrated warrior and patriot, was born, according to the account of his poetical biograpber Henry, or Blind Harry, in 1276. He was the younger son of sir Malcolm Wallace of Ellerslie, near Paisley, in the shire of Renfrew, Scotland, and in his sixteenth year was sent to school at Dundee. In 1295, he was in suited by the son of Selby, an Englishman, constable of the port and castle of Dundee, and killed him; on which le fled, and appears to have lived a roving and irregular life, often engaged in skirmishes with the English troops which then had invaded and kept Scotland under subjection. For his adventures, until he became the subject of history, we must refer to Henry. Most of them appear fictitious, or at least are totally unsupported by any other evidence. Wallace, however, is represented by the Scotcla historians as being about this time the model of a perfect hero; superior to the rest of mankind in bodily stature, strength, and activity ; in bearing cold and heat, thirst and hunger, watching and fatigue; and no less extraordinary in the qualities of his mind, being equally valiant and prudent, magnanimous and disinterested, undaunted in adversity, modest in prosperity, and aniniated by the most arilent and inextinguishable love of his country. Having his resentment against the English sharpened by the personal affront abovementioned, and more by the losses his family had sustained, he determined to rise in defence of his country, and being joined by many of his countrymen, their first efforts were crowned with success; but the earl of Surrey, governor of Scotland, collecting an army of 40,000 men, and entering Annandale, and marching througl, the South-west of Scotland, obliged all the barons of those parts to submit, and renew the oaths of feally. Wallace, with his followers, uuable to encounter so great a force, retired northward, and was pursued by the governor and his army.
When the English army reached Stirling they discovered the Scots encamped near the abbey of Cambuskeneth, on the opposite banks of the Fortb., Cressingham, treasurer of Scotland, whose covetousness and tyranny had been one great cause of this revolt, carnestly pressed the earl of
" Nickols's Alterbury—and Bowyer. --Crosby's Baptists.
Surrey to pass bis ariny over the bridge of Stirling, and attack the enemy. Wallace, who observed all their motions, allowed as many of the English to pass as he thought he could Jefeat, when, rushing upon them with an irresis. tible imperuo:ity, they were all either küled, drowned, or taken prisoners. In the heat of the action, the bridge, wbich was only of wood, broke down, and many perishes! in the rirer; and the earl of Surrey, with the other part of his army, were melancholy spectators of the destruction of their countrymen, without being able to afford theme any assistance: and this severe check, which the English received on Sept. 11, 1297, obliged them to evacuate Scotland. Wallace, who after this great victory was side luted deliverer and guardian of the kingdom by his fullowers, pursuing the tide of success, entered England with his army, recovered the town of Berwick, plundered the counties of Cumberland and Northumberland, and returned into his own country loaded with spoils and glory.
The news of these surprising events being carried to king Edward I. who was then in Flanders, accelerated bis return, and soon after he raised a vast army of 80,000 foot and 7000 horse, which the Scots were now in no condition to resist. Their country, for sereral years, had been almost a continued scene of war, in which many of its inhabitants had perished. Some of their nobles were in the English interest, some of them in prison ; and those few who had any power or inclination to defend the freedom of their country, were dispirited and divided. In particular, the ancient nobility began to view the power and popularity of Williain Wallace with a jealous eye: wbich was productive of very fatal consequences, and contributed to the success of Edward in the battle of Faikirk, fought July 22, 1298, in which the Scots were defeated with great slaughter.
We hear little of Wallace after this until 1303-4, when king Edward had made a complete conquest of Scotland, and, appointing John de Segrave governor of that kingdom, returned to England about the end of August. But Wallace, even after this, and although he had been excluded by the jealousy of the nobles from commanding the armies or influencing the councils of his country, still continued to assert her independency. This, together with the remembrance of many mischiefs which he had done to his English subjects, and perhaps some apprehension that he might