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HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

COMMITTEE ON AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE SCIENCES

UNITED STATES SENATE

EIGHTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION

ON

TESTIMONY OF SCIENTISTS ON GOALS OF THE NATION'S

SPACE PROGRAM

JUNE 10 AND 11, 1963

Printed for the use of the
Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

20-506

WASHINGTON : 1963

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office

Washington, D.O., 20402 - Price 70 cents

SENATE COMMITTEE ON AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE SCIENCES

CLINTON P. ANDERSON, New Mexico, Chairman RICHARD B. RUSSELL, Georgia

MARGARET CHASE SMITH, Maine WARREN G. MAGNUSON, Washington CLIFFORD P. CASE, New Jersey STUART SYMINGTON, Missouri

BOURKE B. HICKENLOOPER, Iowa JOHN STENNIS, Mississippi

CARL T. CURTIS, Nebraska STEPHEN M. YOUNG, Ohio

KENNETH B. KEATING, New York THOMAS J. DODD, Connecticut HOWARD W. CANNON, Nevada SPESSARD L. HOLLAND, Florida J. HOWARD EDMONDSON, Oklahoma

FRANK C. Di Luzio, Staf Director

EVERARD H. SMITH, Jr., Chief Counsel
WILLIAM J. DEACHMAN, Professional Staff Member
Dr. GLEN P. WILSON, Professional Staff Member
Col. HARRY N. TUFTS, Facilities Assistant

Opening session, June 10, 1963:

Opening statement, Senator Clinton P. Anderson, chairman..

Statement of Senator Margaret Chase Smith..

Testimony of —

Dr. Philip Abelson, director, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie

Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C.

Dr. Simon Ramo, vice chairman of the board of directors, Thomp-

son Ramo Wooldridge, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif.

Afternoon session, June 10, 1963:

Testimony of—

Dr. Harold C. Urey, professor of chemistry at large, University of

California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif.

Dr. Polykarp Kusch, professor of physics and chairman of the

Department of Physics, Columbia University.

Dr. Colin S. Pittendrigh, Department of Biology, Princeton

University --

Morning session, June 11, 1963:

Testimony of-

Dr. Frederick Seitz, president, National Academy of Sciences --

Dr. Lloyd V. Berkner, president, Graduate Research Center of

the Southwest, Dallas, Tex...

Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, president, California Institute of Technol-

ogy, Pasadena, Calif.

Afternoon session, June 11, 1963:

Testimony of—

Dr. Martin Schwarzschild, Eugene Higgins, professor of astron-

omy, Princeton University

Dr. H. H. Hess, chairman, Space Science Science Board, National

Academy of Sciences, Department of Geology, Princeton

University, Princeton, N.J.--

Appendix A:

Additional statements submitted for the record.

Additional statement by the chairman..

Dr. Joshua Lederberg, Stanford University Medical School.--

Dr. Warren Weaver, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Rockefeller

Center, New York -

Index..

247

251

Page

3

105

137

179

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF WITNESSES
Abelson, Dr. Philip, director, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institu-

tion of Washington, Washington, D.C.
Berkner, Dr. Lloyd V., president, Graduate Research Center of the South-

west, Dallas, Tex...
DuBridge, Dr. Lee A., president, California Institute of Technology,

Pasadena, Calif..
Hess, Dr. H. H., Chairman, Space Science Board, National Academy of

Sciences, Department of Geology, Princeton University, Princeton,

N.J.
Kusch, Dr. Polykarp, professor of physics and chairman of the Department

of Physics, Columbia University, New York.
Lederberg, Dr. Joshua, Stanford University Medical School..
Pittendrigh, Dr. Colin S., Department of Biology, Princeton University,

Princeton, N. J.-
Ramo, Dr. Simon, vice chairman of the board of directors, Thompson

Ramo Wooldridge, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif.--
Schwarzschild, Dr. Martin, Eugene Higgins professor of astronomy,

Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.
Seitz, Dr. Frederick, President, Natio Academy Sciences.
Urey, Dr. Harold C., professor of chemistry at large, University of Cali-

fornia San Diego, La Jolla, Calif.
Weaver, Dr. Warren, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Rockefeller Center,

New York..

62 244

73

25

153 88

50

247

SCIENTISTS' TESTIMONY ON SPACE GOALS

MONDAY, JUNE 10, 1963

U.S. SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE SCIENCES,

Washington, D.C. The committee met, pursuant to notice, at 10 a.m., in room 235, Old Senate Office Building, Senator Clinton P. Anderson (chairman) presiding.

Present: Senators Anderson, Symington, Young, Dodd, Edmondson, Case, Hickenlooper, and Keating.

Also present: Senator Paul H. Douglas.

Staff members present: Frank C. Di Luzio, staff director; Everard H. Smith, Jr., chief counsel; Col. Harry N. Tufts, facilities assistant; William J. Deachman and Dr. Glen P. Wilson, professional staff members; and Eilene Galloway, special consultant.

OPENING STATEMENT OF CHAIRMAN

The CHAIRMAN. The committee will please come to order. The committee is presently considering NASA's request for funds for fiscal year 1964 in the amount of $5,712 million.

For the record, I should like to state the objective of these hearings, There have been a number of instances recently in which various phases of our Nation's space program have been questioned. The expansion of knowledge and collection of scientific data are among the many reasons why this Nation has embarked upon a program designed to insure preeminence in space. The committee considers that, in addition to witnesses from NASA, a useful purpose will be served by hearing testimony from other scientists at this time.

This testimony will provide further information to assist the committee in evaluating (a) the overall goals of our space exploration effort in comparison with scientific aspects of other national goals, and (b) the relative emphasis on the various projects within the space program in connection with its consideration of NASA's authorization request for fiscal year 1964.

The committee also believes that the information will be helpful in determining possible steps that might be taken (1) to increase the amount of scientific return and (2) to insure better utilization of our scientific and technological resources and also (3) to consider, in connection with the long-range goals of our national space program, whether or not the proper foundation is being laid for the implementation of these goals.

We realize that these witnesses will speak in two capacities—as experts in their various scientific disciplines and as citizens who, like all other citizens, may express opinions on problems of public interest.

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