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they were available to you to relate to the previous statements, saying that we really were not going to preempt most of the Nation's capacity.

The CHAIRMAN. We went to the trouble of telephoning the author of the original statement and he has a quite different version of what he said and how he got his figures. I want to try to relate that to the statement of the Senator from Wisconsin, who guaranteed the accuracy of his figures by saying he worked on them a long time and his staff came up with the answer. I think we will want to try to clear up the discrepancies.

Go ahead, Dr. Smull.

Mr. WEBB. Dr. Thomas L. K. Smull is coming forward, Mr. Chairman, to take Dr. Newell's place.

The CHAIRMAN. We will put his statement in the record in full, but since we are running short on time, perhaps he can skip parts of it.

Mr. WEBB. I think he can probably summarize his statement and offer the whole statement for the record.

The CHAIRMAN. I think that would be fine.

We will be glad to have you summarize your statement, Dr. Smull, if you can. Go ahead.

(The biography of Dr. Smull follows:)

DR. THOMAS L. K. SMULL, DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF GRANTS AND RESEARCH CONTRACTS,

NASA Age: 47; children : Sharon, 17.

Education: B.A. (1937) Ohio Northern University; B.S. (aeronautical engineering) (1939) University of Michigan; B.S. (mechanical engineering) (1939) University of Michigan; Sc. D. (aeronautical engineering) (1948) Ohio Northern University.

1960: Director, Office of Grants and Research Contracts.
1958-60: Assistant Chief, University Programs, NASA.
1950–58: Chief, Research Coordination Division, NACA.
1948–50: Aeronautical research scientist, NACA.
1942-48: Aeronautical engineer, NACA.

Staff, President's Air Policy Commission, 1947.

Consultant, Reesarch and Development, Congressional Aviation Policy Board, 1948.

Registered professional engineer—State of Ohio.

Member of the Council of the Armed Forces-National Research Council Committee on Hearing and Bio-Acoustics. Societies: Associate fellow-Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, American Geophysical Union; Alpha Phi Gamma; Theta Alpha Phi.

Organizations: National Aeronautics Association, Aero Club of Washington, Sigma Phi Epsilon, University Club of Washington, Hampton Yacht Club, West River Sailing Club.

Publications: “New Horizons in Aeronautical Research," Aviation Annual for 1946; "Today's Research for Tomorrow's Aircraft," Aviation Annual for 1947; contributor, Collier's Encyclopedia.

STATEMENT OF DR. THOMAS L. K. SMULL, DIRECTOR, GRANTS AND

RESEARCH CONTRACTS, NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

Dr. SMULL. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, Mr. Webb and Dr. Newell have discussed with you the reasons why it is so important for NASA to have a broad, yet close, working relationship with the Nation's colleges and universities. I would like to describe this program and its management in some detail.

DEALINGS WITH UNIVERSITIES REQUIRES SPECIAL CONSIDERATION

From the beginning of NASA in 1958, it has been recognized that dealings with universities and nonprofit research organizations require special consideration. The business relationships and methods of administration of research differ considerably from those of the vendor-customer system, driven by the profit motive, that forms the basis of our commercial and industrial economy.

NASA's parent organization, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, had been sponsoring research in educational institutions since 1918. During the past 20 years it and other mission-oriented agencies within the Federal Government, such as the military departments, have demonstrated the desirability of separate organizational units designed to deal specifically with this area of activity. The Office of Naval Research was the original venture in this direction, the success of which pointed the way to the establishment of the Office of Scientific Research in the Air Force, and the Army Research Office.

Similarly, NASA maintains within its organizational structure a group which serves as the focal point for relationships with nonprofit scientific and educational institutions. Under NASA's current organizational arrangement this group has been designated the Grants and Research Contracts Division of the Office of Space Science and Applications.

RESPONSIBILITY OF GRANTS AND RESEARCH CONTRACTS DIVISION

It is responsible for establishing policies and procedures for NASA's dealings with these organizations and for administering those segments of the university programs that emanate from NASA headquarters.. Although organizationally located within the Office of Space Science and Applications, its responsibilities are agencywide. Thus it serves all of NASA, including the Office of Manned 'Space Flight and the Office of Advanced Research and Technology in administering those phases of their programatic activities that are carried on in nonprofit scientific and educational institutions.

These activities are mainly what we term project research, and they are either an integral part of or in direct support of rather specific requirements of ongoing NASA programs.

Examples are Van Allen's experiments that have been flown on several of the NASA Explorer satellites, research in energy conversion directed at improving fuel cells or basic studies of high strength metals that might be suitable for use in supersonic transports.

SCOPE OF UNIVERSITY ACTIVITIES REVIEWED IN 1961

In 1961, when the landing of an American on the moon in this decade was defined as a national goal, NASA reviewed the scope of its university activities. During that summer a group of university consultants was assembled by NASA to examine our relationships with universities and the scientific community. In general, the group represented the various echelons of management within universities, the principal scientific disciplines in which NASA is interested, and a reasonable geographical distribution of the institutions already involved in NASA programs.

It emphasized the fact that NASA, to achieve established goals, must take steps to stimulate the training of Ph. D.'s in the space related sciences and technology which were already in short supply and for which the need was increasing, assist in alleviating the critical shortage of research laboratory facilities in the universities, and seek ways to broaden the base of research participation by universities in the NASA program. Consideration of the recommendations of this group, as well as numerous discussions, both within and outside the Federal Establishment, gave rise to NASA's sustaining university program. This is the name that has been given to the program characterized in the fiscal year 1964 budget as “training, facilities, and research grants."

Before going into detail on the management of the sustaining university program, I would like to give you an idea of NASA's total involvement with the Nation's universities. The following table summarizes the funds which were obligated to some 130 universities by NASA during fiscal year 1963.

Summary of NASA fiscal year 1963, obligation to universities !

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1 Does not include funds made available to California Institute of Technology for operation of Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

RESEARCH FACILITY GRANTS MADE FROM HEADQUARTERS

The CHAIRMAN. May I ask you what is this $7,400,000 item for research facilities at headquarters?

Dr. SMULL. The program is administered from headquarters. These are grants made by our staff in headquarters. The field center activities are by contractual arrangement directly between the centers and the university.

The CHAIRMAN. What did you spend the $7 million on?

Dr. SMULL. Those were the grants to universities for facilities that were obligated during fiscal year 1963. .

The CHAIRMAN. I do not understand why it reads "Headquarters." You did not build the buildings here for them!

Mr. WEBB. No. Could I say here the Apollo guidance system has been conducted by MIT under contract with the Houston center? The Houston facilities were not equipped to do that. But these facalities grants we administer from NASA headquarters. It simply means the handling of the agreement with the university is done from NASA headquarters.

Dr. SMULL. This is all work done in universities.
The CHAIRMAN. I understand.

DESCRIPTION OF OBLIGATIONS TO UNIVERSITIES

Dr. SMULL. These figures do not include funds made available to the California Institute of Technology for the operation of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It should be noted that, in the foregoing table, the item entitled “Research Support” includes all the project-type research underway in the universities in support of NASA's on-going programs and the research portion of the sustaining university program.

The Apollo guidance system has been listed separately because of the size of the effort, and because it is to a large degree a unique university activity. Conducted in the instrumentation laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it represents a followon by this group of their highly successful endeavor in the development of the Polaris guidance system.

Funds devoted to the development of research instrumentation flown aboard satellites have also been listed separately. While these research instruments are integral parts of a scientist's experiment, the rigorous environment to which they are subjected and the necessity to withstand the forces and vibration of rocket launching and still be able to operate satisfactorily in gravity-free space, make their construction and testing an extremely complex and difficult task. The design and fabrication of su table instruments often is beyond the limited technological capability of a university. Yet it is essential that the scientist be intimately involved in the development of his instrumentation, so this phase of the work is, in many instances, subcontracted to specialized industries.

The item “Tracking and data acquisition” represents in large measure a service type of activity provided by universities in the operation of tracking stations, data reduction, or support of range activities.

The support shown for research facilities and training in space science and technology are parts of the sustaining university program and will be discussed in detail in a moment.

The item entitled “Career Employee Training, represents university programs designed to provide for continued professional development of NASA's staff.

The balance of my statement goes into the details of the training, where the program is being carried on, the universities participating, and the same for the facilities program. I believe you have introduced for the record a statement of where these facilities are, the criteria upon which these grants are based, and also a listing of the special type research activity that has been carried on under the sustaining university program.

(The prepared statement of Dr. Thomas L. K. Smull follows:)

STATEMENT OF DR. THOMAS L. K. SMULL, DIRECTOR, GRANTS AND RESEARCH

CONTRACTS, NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, Mr. Webb and Dr. Newell have discussed with you the reasons why it is so important for NASA to have a broad, yet close, working relationship with the Nation's colleges and universities. I would like to describe this program and its management in some detail.

From the beginning of NASA in 1958, it has been recognized that dealings with universities and nonprofit research organizations require special consideration. The business relationships and methods of administration of research differ considerably from those of the vendor-customer system, driven by the profit

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motive, that forms the basis of our commercial and industrial economy. NASA's parent organization, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, had been sponsoring research in educational institutions since 1918. During the past 20 years it and other mission-oriented agencies within the Federal Government, such as the military departments, have demonstrated the desirability of separate organizational units designed to deal specifically with this area of activity. The Office of Naval Research was the original venture in this direction, the success of which pointed the way to the establishment of the Office of Scientific Research in the Air Force, and the Army Research Office. Similarly, NASA maintains within its organizational structure a group which serves as the focal point for relationships with nonprofit scientific and educational institutions. Under NASA's current organizational arrangement this group has been designated the Grants and Research Contracts Division of the Office of Space Science and Applications. It is responsible for establishing policies and procedures for NASA's dealings with these organizations and for administering those segments of the university program that emanate from NASA headquarters.

Although organizationally located within the Office of Space Science and Applications, its responsibilities are agencywide. Thus it serves all of NASA, including the Office of Manned Space Flight and the Office of Advanced Research anil Technology in administering those phases of their programmatic activities that are carried on in nonprofit scientific and educational institutions. These activities are mainly what we term "project research," and they are either an integral part of or in direct support of rather specific requirements of on-going NASA programs. Examples are Van Allen's experiments that have been flown on several of the NASA Explorer satellites, research in energy conversion directed at improving fuel cells, or basic studies of high strength metals that might be suitable for use in supersonic transports.

In 1961, when the landing of an American on the moon in this decade was defined as a national goal, NASA reviewed the scope of its university activities. During that summer a group of university consultants was assembled by NASA to examine our relationships with universities and the scientific community. In general, the group represented the various echelons of management within universities, the principal scientific disciplines in which NASA interested, and a reasonable geographical distribution of the institutions already involved in NASA programs. It emphasized the fact that NASA, to achieve established goals, must take steps to stimulate the training of Ph. D.'s in the space-related sciences and technology which were already in short supply and for which the need was increasing, assist in alleviating the critical shortage of research laboratory facilities in the universities, and seek ways to broaden the base of research participation by universities in the NASA program. Considerations of the recommendations of this group, as well as numerous discussions, both within and outside the Federal Government, gave rise to NASA's sustaining university program. This is the name that has been given to the program characterized in the fiscal year 1954 budget as “training, facilities, and research grants.”

This program was initiated in fiscal 1962 with training grants to 10 universities at a, total cost of $2 million for 10 predoctoral trainees at each; 6 facilities grants for the construction of about 175,000 gross square feet of research laboratory space at a total cost of $6.6 million; and approximately $3.5 million was expended for research of a unique nature designed to improve and expand the base of university research capability in space related science and technology

During fiscal year 1963, $30.6 million were allocated to this program; approximately $14 million of which was for training, $11 million for facilities, and the balance for special purpose research.

Before going into detail on the management of the sustaining university program, I would like to give you an idea of NASA's total involvement with the Nation's universities. The following table summarizes the funds that were obligated to some 130 universities by NASA during fiscal year 1963.

Summary of NASA fiscal year 1963 obligations to universities (See chart on p. 92.) It should be noted that, in the foregoing table, the item entitled "Research Support” includes all the project type research underway in the universities in support of NASA's on-going programs and the research portion of the sustaining university program.

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