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Now, Dr. Newell has not only followed the theoretical and technical aspects of space power and participated actively in building all of the systems that we have built, including those associated with the International Geophysical Year and those associated with our present, very advanced orbiting observatories, but he has felt a strong need and personal desire to explain what this means, both in simple terms and in complex terms. He has written seven books, Mr. Chairman, one of which is “Space Science for Young People.” His most recent one is “Express to the Stars." So I think the committee might want to know that we are talking with a man who has devoted a good many years of his life to developing a system in the United States which will give us the capacity to do whatever we may need, both military and civilian, in the space program. He is now Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications. All of the meteorological, Tiros series satellites fly under his control and direction. All of the communications satellite development work is under his direction, as well as the development of the theoretical base in our universities and the research laboratories associated with these activities. The laboratories as well as the program direction were put under his supervision on the first day of November of this year, less than a month ago.

So this is Dr. Homer Newell.

The CHAIRMAN. Dr. Newell, I am glad Mr. Webb gave you a proper introduction.

(Dr. Newell's biography is as follows:)

BIOGRAPHY OF HOMER E. NEWELL, DIRECTOR OF OFFICE OF SPACE SCIENCES, NASA

Dr. Homer E. Newell is Director of the Office of Space Sciences, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, a post he has held since November 1, 1961. Before this, he was the Deputy Director of Space Flight Programs.

An internationally known authority in the field of atmospheric and space sciences, he is the holder of the American Rocket Society's Pendray Award for 1958, and the 1960 Space Flight Award granted annually by the American Astronautical Society to the person who contributed most to the advancement of astronautical sciences.

He came to NASA in October 1958, from the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory where he was acting superintendent of the Atmosphere and Astrophysics Division. In this position he was also the science program coordinator for Project Vanguard, the U.S. scientific earth satellite program for the International Geophysical Year.

A native of Holyoke, Mass., Dr. Newell earned both the bachelor and master of arts degrees from Harvard University and a Ph. D. in mathematics from the University of Wisconsin in 1940.

From 1940 to 1944 he was an instructor and later assistant professor at the University of Maryland, and a ground instructor on navigation with the Civil Aeronautics Administration from 1942 to 1943. From 1951 to 1958, as lecturer in mathematics for the University of Maryland, Dr. Newell participated in the NRL-University of Maryland off-campus education program by teaching graduate courses in mathematics to NRL and other Government employees.

Dr. Newell joined the Naval Research Laboratory in 1944, and became head of the Rocket Sonde Branch in 1947. In this position, he was in charge of the upper atmosphere research program of the NRL. In 1955 he was named acting superintendent of the Atmosphere and Astrophysics Division.

His scientific committee memberships have included the Special Subcommittee on the Upper Atmosphere of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (1947–51), and the Rocket and Satellite Research Panel (formerly Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Panel) since 1947. He was chairman of the Rocket and Satellite Research Panel in 1959 and 1960. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences' Panels on Rocketry and the earth satellite program for the IGY, and was chairman of a special committee of the rocketry panel for planning and organizing this country's IGY sounding rocket program

at Fort Churchill in Canada. In addition, Dr. Newell serves on several committees and working groups of the Committee on Space Research of the International Council of Scientific Unions, of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, and of the International Scientific Radio Union.

Dr. Newell is the author of several technical books and numerous articles. He is a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Research Society of America, the American Geophysical Union, the American Rocket Society, and he is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is president of the Section on Planetary Sciences of the American Geophysical Union.

Dr. Newell, his wife, and their four children live in Washington, D.C.

STATEMENT OF DR. HOMER E. NEWELL, ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRA

TOR FOR SPACE SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS

Dr. NEWELL. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

I may say before I go to my testimony that among the most gratifying and satisfying portions of my career were spent in your State of New Mexico at White Sands in the early days of this work.

The CHAIRMAN. Thank you.

Dr. NEWELL. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee: I am gratified by this committee's desire to learn more about our university program, and it is a pleasure to have this opportunity to discuss in more detail an activity that is so essential to the accomplishment of NASA's overall mission.

MISSION OF OFFICE OF SPACE SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS

The job of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications is in large part one of exploration, of measurement, of analysis and interpretation of phenomena in space in and beyond the solar system which, until recent years, have been beyond the reach of man's capabilities. Together with our parallel Offices of Advanced Research and Technology, and Manned Space Flight, we constitute the instruments by which NASA's total mission as set forth in the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 is being accomplished. We are directed by the act to conduct a program which contributes materially to such basic national objectives as those listed in the early part of the Space Act. Although I have set those forth here, Mr. Chairman, certainly I do not need to read them to this committee. Suffice it to say that this mission determines our relationship with the universities. It is obvious that fulfillment of these objectives requires the participation of the university community just as it does that of the industrial community and other Government agencies.

Only small parts of the actual research, development, and operations which make up the national space effort are done by our own inhouse laboratories. For operations, production and most development, we rely upon industry. For the basic research upon which to build a complex new technology we rely mainly upon universities. We need strong, creative universities just as surely as we need strong, productive industries and a strong economy. Without the assistance of the universities, we will not be able to do our job.

NASA PARTNERSHIP WITH UNIVERSITIES

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Universities are the only knowledge-creating institutions that produce more trained people than they consume. Through constructive methods of operation, which will be discussed later in more detail by Dr. Smull, NASA intends to secure their maximum direct contribution to the space program and, as a primary byproduct, to strengthen the established academic framework in which their kind of work flourishes. As a matter of practical wisdom, we have decided to work within the existing university structure rather than foster activities tending to weaken the university or pull the university researcher away from teaching. On the other hand, universities must bear their share of responsibility and devote an appropriate portion of their material and human resources to the national space effort. From such a partnership, NASA expects to reap a harvest of more fruitful research and useful knowledge, more and better-trained scientists and engineers from which to select our investigators and program managers of tomorrow and more adequate laboratory space in which the research necessary

for the eventual conquest of space can be conducted.

CONTRIBUTION OF UNIVERSITIES TO NASA PROGRAM

Mr. Chairman, at this point, if you are willing, I would like to interpolate a brief résumé of some of the contributions the universities have actually made and are making to our program so as to provide a realistic basis against which to reflect the rest of the testimony.

The CHAIRMAN. I think that would be fine. That is just the kind of thing we are trying to find out.

Dr. NEWELL. Thank you.

The following university experimenters have participated in our program: Professors Kraushaar and Clark and their coworkers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology contributed the first gamma ray astronomy results.

These were particularly exciting results in that they eliminated one possible cosmological theory from those that had been in existence.

Professors Bridge, Rossi, and coworkers, also at MIT, conducted the Explorer X solar plasma measurements. These were the first observations of the solar wind out in space. They made measurements of the boundary of the earth's magnetosphere, the first measurements of the boundary of the earth's magnetic field.

James Van Allen of the State University of Iowa discovered the radiation belts and has since provided a wealth of data on the earth's magnetosphere and in so doing, has trained a large number of students who are now participating in the space program in other universities and in NASA laboratories.

John Simpson and coworkers at the University of Chicago made the first charged particle measurements millions of miles from earth on Pioneer Ŭ and detected events out in space that previously had been thought to be associated with the vicinity of the earth.

Prof. John Winckler and coworkers, of the University of Minnesota, also made particle measurements on Pioneer V. John Winckler was among the discoverers of the solar proton beams, which now appear as the most hazardous elements of charged particles in space for space flight. He and his coworkers have also participated in gamma ray astronomy measurement work.

Professor Ney of the University of Minnesota has devised airglow experiments which Mercury astronauts have carried out. He has also designed similar experiments for later Gemini operations.

Jones and coworkers at the University of Michigan have measured atmospherio densities and temperatures, made ionospheric measurements and developed sophisticated mass spectrometer instrumentation.

Ricketts, Moore, and coworkers of New Mexico State College, one of the earliest group of workers in this field, contributed antenna research and development, development of rocket techniques, telemetry, and field operations.

Professor Schwarzchild of Princeton is contributing to our program through his balloon observations. Photographs have been made of Mars by these techniques.

Professor Suomi of the University of Wisconsin has made infrared measurements in the early IGY and later satellites.

Professor Suomi's measurements were pioneering in the use of infrared for studying the radiation balance in the atmosphere.

Professor Cahill of the University of New Hampshire has made measurements of magnetic fields in space and has contributed to our understanding of radiation belts. Likewise, Professor Davis of the California Institute of Technology has measured the magnetic field in Explorer and Mariner II experiments.

The above are only some of the investigators who have flown experiments on our spacecraft. But just as important are the theorists and the laboratory workers who lead and furnish the basis on which the flight results may be interpreted. By far, the greater fraction of the total output of the space programs basic research comes from these ground-based workers.

For example, Thomas Gold of Cornell developed the theory of magnetic fields in space and actually predicted that magnetic bottles would be discovered out in space.

Prof. Eugene Parker of the University of Chicago predicted that we would find the solar wind. This is an example of the astute theoretical work that underlies our planning and preparation for our measurements and Parker is continuing to furnish leadership in the understanding of the interplanetary medium in the earth's radiation belts.

Joseph Chamberlain of Kitt Peak Observatory is furnishing some of the basis for our understanding of the atmospheric data obtained through our satellites.

Marcel Nicolet, a Belgian working at the Pennsylvania State University, one of the world's leading theorists in aeronomy, has furnished much of the interpretation of ionospheric and atomspheric data from satellites and space probes. He predicted the presence of the helium layer in the upper atmosphere before it was found.

Fred Whipple of Harvard has done theoretical work on the upper atmosphere and theoretical work on micrometeors in space. His early work furnished the basis for micrometeor measurements on our satellites and spacecraft. Walter Roberts and coworkers of the High Altitude Observatory of Colorado provided theoretical and ground observational work on solar activity, furnishing the basis for interpretation of our satellite solar observations.

These examples could be multiplied at length and we would be glad to extend the list for the record if the committee so desires.

In addition, one should also take account of the university workers who have been working in the laboratory to prepare instrumentation, design experiments, and lay the theoretical groundwork for future satellite and space probe points.

Here again the list is a long one; in fact a longer one, and only some illustrative examples can be given.

Spitzer of Princeton, likewise Whipple and coworkers of Harvard and the High Altitude Observatory of Colorado, and Code of the University of Wisconsin. Çode's work is also laying the groundwork for measurements to be made on the X-15 airplane in ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Gordon MacDonald of the University of California is working on the theoretical basis for geodetic studies and lunar observations.

I could continue with this list, Mr. Chairman, but I think I have made my point. I shall be glad to provide the total list for the record if you so desire.

The CHAIRMAN. And I think that is desirable. (The balance of the list referred to follows:)

Name

University

Contribution

Harold Urey, Jim Arnold, and

coworkers.

Frank Press.

Maurice Ewing and coworkers....

Sidney Fox..-.-

University of California, Laboratory and theoretical work on the
San Diego.

chemistry of the moon and meteor-
ites. Laying some of the ground-
work for our future lunar and plane-

tary studies. California Institute of Tech- Preparation of a new type seismometer nology.

for use on the moon. Columbia University (La- Preparation of seismometer for lunar mont Observatory).

studies, cooperating with Frank Press of CIT. Analyses of micrometeor material collected from ocean

sludges. University of Florida.... Synthesis of protein spheres with a

resemblance of enzymatic activity. This lays the groundwork for our

exobiology efforts. Stanford...

Development of life detection systems,

including microscope television sys

tems for exobiological studies. University of Rochester... Development of life detection systems. Harvard...

Instrumentation for orbiting solar ob

servatories, to make ultraviolet

measurements of the sun. Massachusetts Institute of Participating in X-ray instrumentaTechnology.

tion for orbiting solar observatories.

Joshua Lederberg....

Wolf Vishniak,
L Goldberg.

Rossi and coworkers...

WORK PERFORMED ON CAMPUS

The CHAIRMAN. May I ask just this one question:

You have listed men from Michigan, Cornell, various places. Are these people who are doing this work on campus? For example, for some of the early work, we used Dr. Seaborg from the University of California. But Dr. Şeaborg is with the Atomic Energy Commission now. Are these people doing work as part of the staff of NASA or on their own campus, helping NASA in their own programs?

Dr. NEWELL. All of these people I have listed are doing work on campus as members of the university staffs participating in this space program.

The CHAIRMAN. Thank you.

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