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Through our International Ground Station Committee, 11 other nations are cooperating in experimental space communications and gaining experience in reading out signals from communication satellites.
We have sounding rocket agreements with 12 other nations, and cooperative arrangements with 26 other nations in ionospheric research.
We have participated in establishing 27 oversea facilities in 19 different jurisdictions, including tracking stations, deep space instrumentation facilities, and a manned space flight network.
We have also gained valuable experience in cooperative space launchings. The Alouette satellite is the tangible fruit of our continuing cooperation with Canada. The Ariel satellite is the first step in a continuing joint venture with Great Britain. In the near future, we plan to join Italy and France in the placing of other scientific satellites into orbit.
All in all, more than 60 countries have worked cooperatively with the United States in actual flight experiments, in ground-based activities in direct support of orbiting experiments, or in cooperative training programs.
Based upon this wide and mutually fruitful experience in bilateral cooperation, the United States entered into a cooperative agreement with the Soviet Union. On August 16, the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences announced the approval of a first memorandum of understanding to carry out this agreement. Cooperation in three fields is envisaged.
First, the United States and the Soviet Union will exchange data gathered by national experimental weather satellites and will coordinate launchings of their respective weather vehicles in space. The data coming in from these satellites will be open to all nations and will reinforce the projected world weather watch being developed under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization.
Second, we will exchange data from satellites equipped with magnetometers, as part of the world magnetic survey.
Third, we will perform joint experiments in space communications with passive U.S. satellites.
This is at least a start and we hope it is a prophetic one. My Government is ready to get on with this program at any time, and we hope that we may soon begin its implementation.
Mr. Chairman, bilateral cooperation in outer space and cooperation at the United Nations level and multilaterally through organizations of the world's scientific community are mutually reinforcing; and one tends to lead to the other. · Experience gained in cooperating on a narrow base tends to lead to cooperation on a broader base.
Through the International Committee on Space Research_COSPAR, of the International Council of Scientific Unions, 24 nations share scientific research on space. COSPAR has sought with a large measure of success to extend in the space science field the remarkable cooperation that characterized the International Geophysical Year, which, among its other accomplishments, ushered in the age of space.
COSPAR's world data centers for rockets and satellites, maintained at Washington, Moscow, and Slough, England, are the world's major repositories for analyzed data on outer space.
COSPAR has pioneered in maintaining a registry of satellite launchings, and has sponsored Spacewarn, a system in which launching nations communicate around the worla essential information within a few hours after the successful firing of a scientific satellite or space probe.
The U.S. scientific community takes a fully active part in these and other important functions of COSPAR.
We also intend to take an active role in the International Year of the Quiet Sun, an important successor to the IGY, under the auspices of the International Council of Scientific Unions—an effort in which some 60 nations will take part.
These cooperative arrangements within the world scientific community are a healthy phenomenon. They are indicative of a community of interest which transcends national boundaries, and binds men and nations together.
In the world as a whole, this community of interests is perhaps epitomized by the United Nations. Already, the United Nations and its family of agencies are deeply involved in the exciting potentials of outer space to focus cooperation, and help make possible the centralization of vital information.
The Secretary General now maintains a registry of information on space launchings in which the United States, for its part, has registered all its launchings from mid-February 1962.
The Secretary General has now built up an expert outer space staff to assist him in this important field, a development warmly welcomed by the United States. We hope, in implementing the work of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, that this staff might draw up constructive proposals to define further the scope of the Committee's recommendations and its future program.
The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, working with the Secretary General, is already collecting and will soon be publishing information on national and cooperative programs, and on the resources of the United Nations, specialized agencies, and other international bodies related to the peaceful uses of outer space;
It is preparing reviews of training and educational opportunities ;
It is preparing a list of available bibliographic and abstracting services covering the scientific and technical results and publications in space and space-related areas;
And the United Nations, as such, is also considering endorsement of specific activities and facilities which offer unusual opportunities for broad international participation—this year the rocket launching station at Thumba, India.
These and other activities are being carried on directly by the United Nations Space Committee in cooperation with the Secretary General—and I am proud to note, in passing, that my Government was one of the original founders of this committee and has worked actively to help establish its program on a sound basis.
Indeed it was President Johnson himself who, as a Member of the Senate, came before this Committee of the General Assembly in this very room on November 17, 1958, to speak in support of the resolution creating the Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. At that time President Johnson stated :
"To keep space as man has found it and to harvest the yield of peace which it promises, we of the United States see one course and only onewhich the nations of the earth may intelligently pursue. That is the course of full and complete and immediate cooperation to make the exploration of outer space a joint adventure."
Beyond the activities of the U.N. Space Committee, some of the technical agencies are becoming deeply involved in the space venture, and it is here that we see why, in some instances, international organization and international cooperation are not only desirable but a plain necessity.
The most obvious instance of necessity is the problem of allocating radio frequencies to meet the needs for communication, weather, and navigational satellites; for space research; for radio astronomy; and for other uses.
The only alternative to international agreement is chaos in outer space communication. We therefore applaud the recently completed work of the Space Radio Conference of the International Telecommunications Union which provided sufficient allocation of frequency bands for space munication for the next 10 or 15 years, and which adopted procedures relating to the use of these allocations. This, as I say, was a plain necessity.
There also is compelling reason for international organization and cooperation in weather reporting and forecasting. The atmosphere envelopes the globe, not just a single state; so no nation can achieve weather forecasting adequate to its needs from observations made solely within its territory.
As matters stand, inadequate or inaccurate prediction of storms, rainfall, floods, and drought cost the people of the world each year the loss of human life and billions of dollars. Our new-found capacity to orbit meteorological satellites, coupled with other exciting developments in meteorological science and computer technology, holds the promise of a drastic reduction in such losses which have plagued men of all nations through history.
To illustrate the point, our satellite Tiros VI, in the course of a record 13 months of continuous operation, transmitted nearly 60,000 cloud cover photographs which enabled us to issue 360 warnings of severe storms and over 2,000 analyses of global cloud cover. This work is being carried on by Tiros VII, now in orbit above us
And to stress the point that this development can be of direct benefit to all nations in the here and now, let me state that the next Tiros satellite, to be launched shortly, will carry aloft an experimental development—the
automatic picture transmission system. This will transmit automatically to ground receiver stations, without command from the ground, cloud photographic coverage of an area about 1,600 kilometers in radius surrounding the ground station. The receiving equipment can be procured for less than $50,000, bringing this service within the reach of all nations.
This is what science and technology are bringing to the field of meteorology. And the international community is hard on the heels of scientific progress with a matching rate of progress in institutional development.
At its fourth congress, the WMO initiated the financial and organizational basis for a world weather system to make the most of both conventional and satellite weather data. We should applaud this move and urge members to play their part in the world weather system and take the necessary steps to be in a position to get the greatest benefits from it. My Government is only too pleased to support this program, and the WMO in general, as it has from the beginning.
In the field of space communications, too, the technology does not lie in the distant future, but has been coming rapidly into use this very year.
The first Relay satellite, placed into orbit December 13, 1962, provided successful transmission of voice between North and South America, and of black and white and color television between the United States and Europe. The second Telstar satellite, launched on May 7 of this year, has in addition, carried telephone calls, teletype messages and data and facsimile transmission.
The first public demonstration of a synchronous satellite Syncom II—was conducted on August 4, 1963, between Nigeria and the United States.
We were fortunate in having as a participant in that program the Secretary General of the United Nations. Moreover, the opening of the General Assembly was transmitted by both medium altitude and synchronous satellites in television and voices.
Here, too-in space communications as in weather-technology, economics, and commonsense all impel us toward the establishment of a single universal system.
As we have said before, our purpose is to help develop a single, global commercial system of communication via satellites—a system in which all countries will have an opportunity to participate in its ownership, management, and
The U.S. Communications Satellite Corp. is now well underway with its planning.
As President Kennedy said on November 20: "This Government and the U.S. Communications Satellite Corp. can now take practical steps, in cooperation with other governments and foreign business entities, to develop a single global commercial space communications system.”
The U.S. Government and the Communications Satellite Corp. look forward to exchanging views in the months ahead with other governments and communications entities on next steps toward such a global system
Communication by satellite is in process of imminent realization. The voice, message, and picture will leap the barriers of distance. We will come erer closer together in time and space. But use of this new means of communication for international understanding will depend, as always, on our deeds. And in the creation of the global communication system itself, there is no rational alternative to international cooperation.
Mr. Chairman, what does all this add up to?
In the name of the world community, we have promulgated the doctrine of freedom in outer space declared that it shall be for human betterment and taken first steps toward assuring it-decided that space shall be ruled by international law, and begun to spell out what we mean by that.
In the name of technology, efficiency, maximum benefit. and plain good sense, we are engaged in an elaborate network of international cooperation at bilateral, multilateral, and United Nations levels, which taken together can well be described as an international program to extend dramatically man's knowledge and mastery of the outer environment which wraps all nations and all peoples in a common embrace.
In short, we have rejected the political philosophy which made the last age of discovery an age of national conquest and conflict-and projected a political philosophy which promises to make this new age of discovery one of cooperation and benefit for all mankind. In outer space, if you please, our
sense of social responsibility and our capacity for social invention are not doing too badly in response to the challenge laid down by the inventions of our scientists.
I have left to the last any reference to a manned flight to the moon.
Let me make it clear that exploration of the moon is not a stunt, distinct from the outer space program as a whole; nor is it the exclusive concem of only two nations.
This project, spectacular though it may be, is understood best as a single step in man's mastery of space. It is a stage in a sequence which has a background and foreground.
In the background of manned flight to the moon is the vast program of research and the varied series of experiments which will make it possible thoroughly justified in and of themselves. Indeed, not more than about 10 percent of our total expenditures on outer space can be attributed directly to manned lunar flight.
This program is being carried forward with significant international cooperation. Many nations, not one, are contributing to the moon project. The tracking and data stations in Mexico, Bermuda, the Canary Islands of Spain, Nigeria, Zanzibar, and Australia have been central to the success of the orbital flights in our Mercury program. These stations, along with additional facilities, are vital to the program for the manned lunar landing. This applies as well to the scientific investigations to be carried out through cooperative satellite and sounding rocket programs.
We are proud of these associations in a common task, Mr. Chairman. We hope that they will grow.
Beyond the manned landing on the moon lies the whole uncharted and unpredictable adventure of interplanetary exploration. So exploration of the moon is seen properly as the culmination of one stage of a process and the opening of another—as both an end and a beginning. I repeat that the preponderant part of the U.S. space program
made up of projects which we would want to carry out even if we did not plan at this stage to land men on the moon. The plans for a manned landing and return from the moon are thus one part of a space program whose larger purpose is to carry into outer space man's unending adventure of discovery.
As I have been saying here today, we have welcomed—and in fact fostered—the highest possible degree of international cooperation.
As you also know, President Kennedy proposed before the General Assembly last September to explore with the Soviet Union opportunities for working together in the conquest of space, including the sending of men to the moon as representatives of all of our countries. President Johnson has instructed me to reaffirm that offer today.
If giant strides cannot be taken at once, we hope that shorter steps can. We believe there are areas of work-short of integrating the two national programs—from which all could benefit. We should explore the opportunities for practical cooperation, beginning with small steps and hopefully leading to larger ones.
In any event, our policy of engaging in mutually beneficial and mutually supporting cooperation in outer space_with the Soviet Union as with all nations—does not begin or end with a manned moon landing. There is plenty of work yet to come before that—and there will be even more afterward.
Mr. Chairman, one of the legal principles in the resolution before us states that “in the exploration of outer space, States shall be guided by the principle of cooperation and mutual assistance.” My Government is so guidedby preference and by deed.
Another principle in the same resolution declares that "states shall regard astronauts as envoys of mankind in outer space.” We are prepared so to regard our astronauts and all astronauts.
Finally, we wish to consider our own national effort to realize man's dream of a voyage to the moon as part of a larger design to add to the store of man's knowledge. We hope that all nations will take part in this great venture in the same spirit.
Mr. Chairman, we are well started, in this seventh year of the age of space, in the direction of freedom, peace, law, and cooperation in outer space.
Every relevant pressure here on earth impels us to stay on that track. If we can acquire the habit of cooperation in outer space, we shall not only learn more about man's relation to his environment but about man's relation to man. And thus may world statesmanship match achievement with science.
THE FOLLOWING WAS SUBMITTED BY NASA IN RESPONSE TO ISSUES RAISED ON
PAGES 40 AND 89
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION,
OFFICE OF THE ADMINISTRATOR,
Washington, D.C., January 7, 1964. Mr. FRANK C. DI LUZIO, Staff Director, Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C.
DEAR MR. Di Luzio: This is in reply to your request for a reply to Dr. Commoner's statements regarding the utilization of scientists and engineers in the NASA program.
The statement that "by 1970, NASA will require the services of one of every four (scientists and engineers) in the country” is not based upon the most recent estimates. NASA submitted a statement entitled "Requirements for Scientists and Engineers” to the Subcommittee on Employment and Manpower of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare of the U.S. Senate, November 14, 1963. Taking the estimate of the Bureau of Labor Statistics that the total supply of scientists and engineers in 1970 will be about 1,700,000 and the NASA estimated requirements (for agency and industry) of 90,000 to 100,000, the percentage derived is 5.9 percent. NASA's requirements will rise to a peak of 6.6 percent of the national supply in 1966–67 and fall thereafter. We are enclosing extra copies of the cited report for your files and for submission to Dr. Commoner.
Dr. Dryden's estimate of 25 percent was made in November 1962, before the NASA and Bureau of Labor Statistics studies were completed. In addition, this statement reflected the upper possible limits of the earliest estimate rather than the more conservative ratio verified by later studies. Dr. Dryden's complete statement at the NASA-University Conference, which apparently was not fully quoted in the November 19, 1962, issue of Aviation Week and Space Technology was as follows:
“It has been estimated that by 1970 as many as one-fourth of the Nation's trained scientific and engineering manpower will be engaged in space activities, although I cannot confirm the accuracy of the statement.” (See p. 90 of NASAUniversity Conference proceedings, Vol. 1, Nov. 1-3, 1962.)
Dr. Commoner expressed concern that “the NASA program was apparently planned, and important commitments made before its impact on the Nation's total scientific establishment was evaluated (at least before such an evaluation, if it existed, was made public).” Since the letter is primarily concerned with the NASA-manned lunar program, we would assume that it is this program to which Dr. Commoner is referring here. We would refer Dr. Commoner to a brief article, “John F. Kennedy: A Remembrance,” by Dr. Jerome B. Weisner, in the November 29, 1963, issue of Science, page 1149. The former scientific adviser to the President states that the decision to land Americans on the moon and return them before 1970 was made only after the most careful and full consultation with hundreds of people.
These people could not predict every impact of this program, but they were in a position to judge its place in the overall national picture, weighing needs of national security, education, and science, among other things. In addition, as was pointed out above, the program in fact has not and is not expected to result in any undue burden on scientific and engineering manpower.
The statement that “NASA will need 70,000 scientists and engineers next year” and that “this is almost 10 times the annual production of Ph. D.'s in science and engineering,” is misleading if the intended inference is that NASAconnected scientists and engineers all hold doctorates. Only about 3.2 percent of such personnel hired by NASA hold doctorate degrees, 14.8 percent hold masters' degrees, and 78.7 percent hold bachelor's degrees. These figure represent the highest degree held by 3,710 engineers and scientists hired by the agency between July 1, 1961, and September 30, 1962. Hiring since September 1962, has reflected approximately the same proportion of masters' and doctorate degree holders. We hope this information will prove useful to you. Sincerely yours,
RICHARD L. CALLAGHAN, Assistant Administrator for Legislative Affairs.