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4. Recognizes the potential contribution of communications satellites in the expansion of global telecommunications facilities and the possibilities this offers for increasing the flow of information and for furthering the objectives of the United Nations and its agencies ;

V

Requests the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space to continue its work as set forth in General Assembly Resolutions 1472 (XIV), 1721 (XVI), 1802 (XVII), and in this resolution, and to report to the General Assembly at its nineteenth session on the activities of the Committee.

RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY

1802 (XVII). INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION IN THE PEACEFUL USES OF OUTER SPACE

The General Assembly,

Rccalling its resolution 1721 (XVI) of 20 December 1961 on international co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space,

Believing that the activities of States in the exploration and use of outer space should be carried out in conformity with international law including the Charter of the United Nations, in the interest of friendly relations among nations,

Stressing the necessity of the progressive development of international law pertaining to the further elaboration of basic legal principles governing the activities of States in the exploration and use of outer space and to liability for space vehicle accidents and to assistance to and return of astronauts and space vehicles and to other legal problems,

Bearing in mind that the application of scientific and technological advances in outer space, particularly in the fields of meteorology and communications, can bring great advantages to mankind and contribute to the economic and social progress of the developing countries as envisaged in the United Nations Development Decade programme,

Having considcred the report submitted by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in response to resolution 1721 (XVI),'

I

1. Notes with regret that the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space has not yet made recommendations on legal questions connected with the peaceful uses of outer space;

2. Calls upon all Member States to co-operate in the further development of law for outer space;

3. Requests the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space to continue urgently its work on the further elaboration of basic legal principles governing the activities of States in the exploration and use of outer space and on liability for space vehicle accidents and on assistance to and return of astronauts and space vehicles and on other legal problems;

4. Refers to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, as a basis for this work, all proposals which have been made thus far, including the draft declaration of the basic principles governing the activities of States pertaining to the exploration and use of outer space submitted by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,” the draft international agreement on the rescue of astronauts and spaceships making emergency landings submitted by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the draft proposal on assistance to, and return of, space vehicles and personnel submitted by the United States of America,' the draft proposal on liability for space vehicle accidents submitted by the United States of America, the draft code for international co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space submitted by the United Arab Republic,

1 A/5181.
2 Ibid., annex III, A.
8 Ibid., annex III, B.
* Ibid., annex III, C.
6 Ibid., annex III, D.
6 Ibid., annex III, E.

the draft declaration of basic principles governing the activities of States pertaining to the exploration and use of outer space submitted by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (A/C.1/879), the draft declaration of principles relating to the exploration and use of outer space submitted by the United States of America (A/C.1/881), and all other proposals and documents presented to the General Assembly during its debates on this item and the records of those debates ;

II

7

1. Endorses the recommendations set forth in the report of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space concerning the exchange of information;

2. Notes with appreciation that a number of Member States have already, on a voluntary basis, provided information on their national space programmes, and urges other States and regional and international organizations to do so;

3. Urges all Member States and appropriate specialized agencies to give whole-hearted and effective support to the international programmes mentioned in the report and already under way, including the International Year of the Quiet Sun and the World Magnetic Survey ;

4. Notes that the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space considers that the creation and use of sounding rocket launching facilities under United Nations sponsorship would contribute to the achievement of the objectives of resolution 1721 (XVI) by furthering international collaboration in space research and the advancement of human knowledge, and by providing opportunity for valuable practical training for interested users;

5. Notes the recommendation that Member States should consider the establishment under United Nations sponsorship of a sounding rocket facility, or facilities, on the geomagnetic equator, in time for the International Year of the Quiet Sun;

6. Endorses the basic principles suggested by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space for the operation of such facilities under United Nations sponsorship;

7. Affirms that such facilities, when established and operated in accordance with these principles, shall, at the request of the host Member State, be eligible for United Nations sponsorship;

III

1. Notes with appreciation the prompt initial response of the World Meteorological Organization to the request of the General Assembly, as embodied in resolution 1721 C (XVI), that it report on a programme to advance atmospheric science research and to develop improved weather forecasting capabili. ties in the light of developments in outer space (A/5229);

2. Calls upon Member States to strengthen weather forecasting services and to encourage their scientific communities to co-operate in the expansion of atmospheric science research;

3. Recommends that the World Meteorological Organization, in consultation with other United Nations agencies and governmental and non-governmental organizations, should develop in greater detail its plan for an expanded programme to strengthen meteorological services and research, placing particular emphasis on the use of meteorological satellites and on the expansion of training and educational opportunities in these fields ;

4. Invites the International Council of Scientific Unions through its member unions and national academies to develop an expanded programme of atmospheric science research which will complement the programmes fostered by the World Meteorological Organization ;

5. Invites United Nations agencies concerned with the granting of technical and financial assistance, in consultation with the World Meteorological Organization, to give sympathetic consideration to requests from Member States for technical and financial assistance to supplement their own resources for these activities, including the improvement of meteorological networks ;

6. Requests the World Meteorological Organization, following its Congress in April 1963, to report to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, and to the Economic and Social Council at its thirty-sixth session, on steps taken relating to these activities;

7 Ibid., para. 14.

IV

1. Notes with appreciation the prompt initial response of the International Telecommunication Union to the request of the General Assembly, as embodied in resolution 1721 D (XVI), that it report on those aspects of space communications in which international co-operation will be required (A/5237) ;

2. Believes that communication by satellite offers great benefits to mankind, as it will permit the expansion of radio, telephone and television transmissions, including the broadcast of United Nations activities, thus facilitating contact among the peoples of the world ;

3. Emphasizes the importance of international co-operation to achieve effective satellite communications which will be available on a world-wide basis;

4. Observes that the Secretary-General of the International Telecommunication Union has invited member States to submit information on:

(a) Technical progress and developments in space telecommunications ;

(b) Subjects which they regard as appropriate for international co-operation in order to achieve the objectives set forth in resolution 1721 (XVI);

(c) Which of those subjects, if any, should be included in the agenda of the Extraordinary Administrative Radio Conference to be held in October 1963 ;

5. Notes that the Secretary-General of the International Telecommunication Union, in the light of the replies, will report on these questions to the next meeting of its Administrative Council in March 1963 in order that the Council may complete the agenda for this Conference;

6. Considers it of the utmost importance that this Conference make allocations of radio frequency bands sufficient to meet expected outer space needs:

7. Requests the International Telecommunication Union to report to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, and to the Economic and Social Council at its thirty-sixth session, on progress made relating to its outer space activities.

1192nd plenary meeting,

14 December 1962.

RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY (ON THE REPORT OF THE FIRST

COMMITTEE (A/5026) )

1721 (XVI). INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION IN THE PEACEFUL USES OF OUTER SPACE

A The General Assembly,

Recognizing the common interest of mankind in furthering the peaceful uses of outer space and the urgent need to strengthen international co-operation in this important field,

Believing that the exploration and use of outer space should be only for the betterment of mankind and to the benefit of States irrespective of the stage of their economic or scientific development,

1. Commends to States for their guidance in the exploration and use of outer space the following principles :

(a) International law, including the Charter of the United Nations, applies to outer space and celestial bodies ;

(6) Outer space and celestial bodies are free for exploration and use by all States in conformity with international law and are not subject to national appropriation;

2. Invites the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space to study and report on the legal problems which may arise from the exploration and use of outer space.

1085th plenary meeting,

20 December 1961.

B The General Assembly,

Believing that the United Nations should provide a focal point for international co-operation in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space,

1. Calls upon States launching objects into orbit or beyond to furnish information promptly to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, through the Secretary-General, for the registration of launchings;

2. Requests the Secretary-General to maintain a public registry of the information furnished in accordance with paragraph 1 above;

3. Requests the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, in cooperation with the Secretary-General and making full use of the functions and resources of the Secretariat:

(a) To maintain close contact with governmental and non-governmental organizations concerned with outer space matters;

(b) To provide for the exchange of such information relating to outer space activities as Governments may supply on a voluntary basis, supplementing but not duplicating existing technical and scientific exchanges ;

(c) To assist in the study of measures for the promotion of international co-operation in outer space activities;

4. Further requests the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space to report to the General Assembly on the arrangements undertaken for the performance of those functions and on such developments relating to the peaceful uses of outer space as it considers significant.

1085th plenary meeting,

20 December 1961.

The General Assembly,

Noting with gratification the marked progress for meteorological science and technology opened up by the advances in outer space,

Convinced of the world-wide benefits to be derived from international cooperation in weather research and analysis,

1. Recommends to all Member States and to the World Meteorological Organization and other appropriate specialized agencies the early and comprehensive study, in the light of developments in outer space, of measures :

(a) To advance the state of atmospheric science and technology so as to provide greater knowledge of basic physical forces affecting climate and the possibility of large-scale weather modification;

(6) To develop existing weather forecasting capabilities and to help Member States make effective use of such capabilities through regional meteorological centres ;

2. Requests the World Meteorological Organization, consulting as appropriate with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and other specialized agencies and governmental and non-governmental organizations, such as the International Council of Scientific Unions, to submit a report to its member Governments and to the Economic and Social Council at its thirty-fourth session regarding appropriate organizational and financial arrangements to achieve those ends, with a view to their further consideration by the General Assembly at its seventeenth session;

3. Requests the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, as it deems appropriate, to review that report and submit its comments and recommendations to the Economic and Social Council and to the General Assembly.

1085th plenary meeting,

20 December 1961.

D The General Assembly,

Believing that communication by means of satellites should be available to the nations of the world as soon as practicable on a global and non-discriminatory basis,

Convinced of the need to prepare the way for the establishment of effective operational satellite communication,

1. Notes with satisfaction that the International Telecommunication Union plans to call a special conference in 1963 to make allocations of radio frequency bands for outer space activities;

2. Recommends that the International Telecommunication Union consider at that conference those aspects of space communication in which international co-operation will be required ;

3. Notes the potential importance of communication satellites for use by the United Nations and its principal organs and specialized agencies for both operational and informational requirements ;

4. Invites the Special Fund and the Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance, in consultation with the International Telecommunication Union, to give sympathetic consideration to requests from Member States for technical and other assistance for the survey of their communication needs and for the 1 A/4987.

development of their domestic communication facilities so that they may make effective use of space communication ;

5. Requests the International Telecommunication Union, consulting as appropriate with Member States, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and other specialized agencies and governmental and non-governmental organizations; such as the Committee on Space Research of the International Council of Scientific Unions, to submit a report on the implementation of those proposals to the Economic and Social Council at its thirty-fourth session and to the General Assembly at its seventeenth session ;

6. Requests the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, as it deems appropriate, to review that report and submit its comments and recommendations to the Economic and Social Council and to the General Assembly.

1185th plenary mccting,

20 December 1961.

E
The General Assembly,
Recalling its resolution 1472 (XIV) of 12 December 1959,

Noting that the terms of office of the members of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space expire at the end of 1961,

Noting the report of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space,

1. Decides to continue the membership of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space as set forth in General Assembly resolution 1472 (XIV) and to add Chad. Mongolia, Morocco and Sierra Leone to its membership in recognition of the increased membership of the United Nations since the Committee was established;

2. Requests the Committee to meet not later than 31 March 1962 to carry out its mandate as contained in General Assembly resolution 1472 (XIV), to review the activities provided for in the present resolution and to make such reports as it may consider appropriate.

1085th plenary mccting,

20 December 1961.

RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY (ON THE REPORT OF THE

FIRST COMMITTEE (A/4351))

1472 (XIV). INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION IN THE PEACEFUL USES OF OUTER SPACE

A The General Assembly,

Recognizing the common interest of mankind as a whole in furthering the peaceful use of outer space,

Believing that the exploration and use of outer space should be only for the betterment of mankind and to the benefit of States irrespective of the stage of their economic or scientific development,

Desiring to avoid the extension of present national rivalries into this new field,

Recognizing the great importance of international co-operation in the exploration and exploitation of outer space for peaceful purposes,

Noting the continuing programmes of scientific co-operation in the exploration of outer space being undertaken by the international scientific community,

Believiny also that the United Nations should promote international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space,

1. Establishes a Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, consisting of Albania, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Mexico, Poland, Romania, Sweden, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Arab Republic, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, whose members will serve for the years 1960 and 1961, and requests the Committee:

(a) To review, as appropriate, the area of international co-operation, and to study practical and feasible means for giving effect to programmes in the

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