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Since 1959, 65 scientists from the following 25 countries have been recipients of these associateships : Australia 3 | Israel.
2 Belgium.. 1 Italy
4 Brazil. 1 Japan.
5 Canada. 1Korea.
1 Ceylon_ 1 Netherlands..
1 China 4 New Zealand.
1 Colombia 1 Pakistan.
1 Denmark. 1 Sweden.
1 France 1 Switzerland.
1 Germany 6 Turkey
2 Greece_ 2 Uruguay
2 India14 United Kingdom..
1 Currently 37 associates are working at NASA centers.
II. (b) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) resident research appointments: This program which was established by JPL in 1960, is administered by the Laboratory and parallels the NASA resident research program.
Since 1960, 16 scientists from the following 6 countries have been recipients of these associateships : Australia 1) New Zealand.
1 Germany 3 Sweden.-
1 Japan.4 | United Kingdom.
6 Seven associates are currently at JPL.
III. Training in connection with NASA cooperative projects with other countries : Training is an integral part of many NASA projects of international cooperation. The training is not generalized but rather is directed to the requirements of the specific project in hand, depending on the needs of the cooperating nation, its responsibilities in the joint project, and the scientific and technical character of the project itself. Training may therefore be provided in instrumental techniques, satellite engineering, small sounding rocket launching procedures, tracking, and data acquisition, reduction, and analysis.
This training is generally provided on an on-the-job basis at NASA centers. The cooperating national space organizations meet all costs of travel to and from the United States and for salaries and subsistence of their personnel during the training period.
Thus far, 130 scientists and engineers from 10 countries, plus nominees of the European Space Research Organization, have received training at NASA centers : Argentina.
4 NorwayBrazil. 1 Pakistan.
9 France 12 Sweden.
8 India. 10 United Kingdom.
72 European Space Research Japan.1 Organization -
8 Sixty-three technicians are currently training at NASA centers.
In addition, a certain amount of on-the-job training has been provided for foreign technicians to permit them to participate in the operation of tracking and data acquisition stations abroad.
IV. Foreign visitors : Visits to NASA installations are arranged at the request of foreign scientific and government organizations, embassies, and other U.S. Government agencies such as the Department of State and the Weather Bureau. Requests generally are in the following categories :
Percent Scientific and technical..
45 News media--
15 General orientation and tours..
Some 6,500 persons from 74 countries have visited NASA to date. There have been 2,400 visitors during 1963. Routine procedure requires sponsorships and/or clearance by the visitors' embassies.
The visitors' program provides opportunities to demonstrate the breadth and depth of U.S. strength in space research and exploration and supports the posture of openness and peaceful objectives.
Transportation, hotel accommodations, and subsistence expenses are borne by the visitor, except in the case of officials, such as officials of foreign space committees, etc., who may be accommodated in scheduled NASA aircraft or at station quarters at Wallops Island or Cape Kennedy.
THE FOLLOWING WAS SUBMITTED BY NASA IN ANSWER TO QUESTIONS RAISED BY
SENATOR SMITH ON PAGE 89 1. Mr. John D. Young, Director of Administration for NASA, recently testified before a subcommittee of the Senate Labor and Public Welfare Committee. One of the interesting comments that Mr. Young made before that subcommittce was that NASA loses about 8 percent of its scientists and engineers in any given year. What I would like to know, and you may submit this for the record, is the average length of time these scientists and engineers worked for NASA before resigning and the principal reasons given for the resignation by the majority of those resigning.
The turnover rate stated by Mr. Young is the total turnover rate for NASA scientists and engineers. Separations of temporary employees are included in the computation of this rate as prescribed by the Civil Service Commission. Thus the 8-percent turnover includes a considerable number of summer graduate students and professors who work at NASA during the summer and, therefore, increase the turnover rate.
The turnover rate for NASA scientists and engineers computed on the basis of permanent positions only for the last four quarters results in a yearly turnover rate of 6 percent.
There were 559 separations of permanent scientists and engineers from NASA during the period from October 1, 1962, to September 30, 1963. A survey will be made to determine the average length of time they worked at NASA and the principal reasons given for the resignation by the majority of those resigning. This will be submitted for the record when completed.
2. Have you planned some point where your request for appropriations for educational purposes will level off, or do you anticipate requesting higher appropriations every year? In other words, what are you building up to? What is your desired point of stability?
The training grant program was initiated as a means of increasing the future supply and availability of scientists and engineers required in spacerelated science and technology, and accomplishing this in such a way as to both strengthen the universities involved and lay a base in a large number of them for increased interest and competence in space research. NASA established an objective of having in training approximately 4,000 graduate students each year which should yield an output of 1,000 Ph. D.'s in science and engineering annually based on a dropout average of one in four students.
In attempting to build to and maintain the 4,000 student level, our request for funds in any given year would not exceed $25 to $30 million. The estimated cost of maintaining a graduate student in training for 3 years is approximately $20,000. Our request to the Congress for training grant funds in fiscal year 1964 was $25 million. As a result of congressional action, the program will be funded at a level of $20 million in fiscal year 1964.
In 1962, this graduate student training program was supporting 10 students at each of 10 universities. At the present time, 886 students are in training at 88 different universities. With the fiscal year 1964 funds made available to us we anticipate making training grants available to approximately 1,000 additional graduate students, at which time more than 130 universities will be participating in this program.
3. What percentage do you estimate, of the graduate students that NASA assists in educating will work for NASA after graduation ?
The predoctoral training program was established to assure the availability of scientists and engineers in all space-related endeavors. From the outset of the program we have anticipated that those trainees receiving their Ph. D.'s would seek employment in industry as well as Government and that many would undertake research and teaching in the universities. The first class of trainees is still pursuing its formal training. While we cannot predict the percentage of the group that may affiliate with NASA, informal interviews with them indicate that the great majority will go into space-related work in the universities, in industry, or in Government.
4. How many individual students are currently being assisted by NASA on a full-time basis? Of these students, what percentage are in the physical sciences, social sciences, and engineering? You may submit this for the record if it would be more convenient.
Under NASA predoctoral training grants, 886 individual students are currently being assisted by NASA on a full-time basis. Of the 886 students, 49 percent are in the physical sciences, 40 percent in engineering, 10 percent in the biological sciences, and 1 percent in the social sciences.
THE FOLLOWING WAS SUBMITTED BY NASA IN ANSWER TO QUESTIONS RAISED BY
SENATOR SMITH ON PAGE 63
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION,
OFFICE OF THE ADMINISTRATOR,
Washington, D.C., December 17, 1963. Mr. FRANK C. DI LUZIO, Staff Director, Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, U.S. Scnate, Washington, D.C.
DEAR MR. DI LUZIO: This is the additional information promised for the record of the university hearings held by the committee on November 22, 1963.
Chairman Anderson requested an analysis of the United Nation's General Assembly resolution passed by the Political Committee on December 5, 1963, and asked what effect it would have on the U.S. space program in the event the resolution is adopted. Senator Smith requested a similar report on other U.N. resolutions relating to outer space. (See pp. 61-63.)
The following resolutions relating to outer space have been adopted by the General Assembly: Resolution 1472, adopted December 12, 1959; Resolution 1721, adopted December 20, 1961; Resolution 1802, adopted December 14, 1962, and two resolutions, as yet unnumbered,' adopted on December 13, 1963.
With regard to the questions as to the effect of these resolutions on the national space program, there is some potential for positive benefit, e.g., NASA can expect increased opportunity for sounding rocket research in the equatorial regions as a result of the creation of United Nations sponsored international sounding rocket launching facilities by other countries; it should become easier to engage the active assistance of other countries in the contingency recovery and rescue of American astronauts and space vehicles in distress; the very favorable action by the recent Extraordinary Administrative Radio Conference in allocating adequate radio frequency bands for spacework was undoubtedly due in part to the interest of the General Assembly in this matter. We do not anticipate any adverse effects on the national space program as a result of these resolutions.
With specific reference to the request for comment on the proposed resolution containing a declaration of legal principles relating to outer space, there is attached a copy of the statement by Ambassador Francis Plimpton, the U.S. representative, before the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on November 22, 1963. This statement contains an article-by-article description of the proposed resolution. The attitude of the United States toward the proposed declaration was set forth by Ambassador Adlai Stevenson in his statement of December 2, 1963, before the Political Committee of the General Assembly :
“I should like to say a few words about the character and status which the United States considers the principles contained in this declaration will have once the draft resolution has been adopted by the General Assembly, as we hope, without any dissent. In the view of the United States, the operative paragraphs of the resolution contained legal principles which the General Assembly, in adopting the resolution, would declare should guide States in the exploration and use of outer space. We believe these legal principles reflect international law as it is accepted by the members of the United Nations. The United States, for its part, intends to respect these principles. We hope that the conduct which the resolution commends to nations in the exploration of outer space will become the practice of all nations."
1 These resolutions were subsequently numbered 1962 (XVIII) and 1963 (XVIII).
The full text of this statement is enclosed.
We have informed the Department of State of the committee's interest in the United Nations activities relating to outer space.
United Nations activities in outer space have centered within the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space established by General Assembly Resolution 1472 in December 1959. Ambassador Francis Plimpton, Deputy U.S. Representative to the United Nations is the U.S. representative on the Committee, assisted by Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, Deputy Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, as senior technical adviser, and by the following congressional advisers: Senators Margaret Chase Smith and Howard W. Cannon of the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, and Congressmen George P. Miller and James G. Fulton of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics. Sincerely yours,
RICHARD L. CALLAGHAN,
Assistant Administrator for Legislative Affairs. (The attachments are as follows: U.N. Res. 1962 (XVIII) appears on p. 75; U.N. Res. 1963 (XVIII) follows:)
A/RES/1963 (XVIII) PASSED BY GENERAL ASSEMBLY DECEMBER 13, 1963
The General Assembly,
Recalling its Resolutions 1721 (XVI) of 20 December 1961 and 1802 (XVII) of 14 December 1962, on international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space,
Having adopted Resolution 1963 (XVIII) containing a declaration of basic legal principles governing the activities of States in the exploration and use of outer space,
Having considered the Report (A/5549 and A/5549 Add. 1) submitted by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space,
Mindful of the benefits which all Member States would enjoy by participation in international programs of cooperation in this field,
1. Recommends that consideration should be given to incorporating in international agreement form, in the future as appropriate, legal principles governing the activities of States in the exploration and use of outer space;
2. Requests the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space to continue to study and report on legal problems which may arise in the exploration and use of outer space, and in particular to arrange for the prompt preparation of draft international agreements on liability for damage caused by objects launched into outer space and on assistance to and return of astronauts and space vehicles;
3. Further requests the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space to report to the General Assembly at its nineteenth session on the results achieved in preparing these two agreements;
1. Endorses the recommendations of the Report of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space concerning exchange of information, encouragement of international programs, international sounding rocket facilities, education and training and potentially harmful effects of space experiments ;
2. Welcomes the decision of the Committee, in cooperation with the Secretary General and making full use of the functions and resources of the Secretariat, to undertake the following:
a. Preparation of a working paper on the activities and resources of the United Nations, of its Specialized Agencies, and of other competent international bodies relating to the peaceful uses of outer space;
b. Preparation of a summary of national and of cooperative international space activities;
c. Preparation of a list of available bibliographic and abstracting services covering the scientific and technical results and publications in space and space-related areas;
d. Compilation in cooperation with UNESCO of reviews of information on facilities for education and training in basic subjects related to the peaceful uses of outer space in universities and other places of learning;
e. Establishment, at the request of the Government of India, of a group of five scientists to visit the sounding rocket launching facility at Thumba and to advise the Committee on its eligibility for United Nations sponsorship in accordance with the basic principles endorsed by the General Assembly in Resolution 1802 (XVII);
3. Notes with appreciation that, in accordance with General Assembly Resolution 1721 (XVI), the Secretary General is maintaining a public registry of objects launched into orbit or beyond on the basis of information being furnished by States Members of the United Nations ;
4. Notes with appreciation that certain Member States have, on a voluntary basis, provided information on their national space programs, and invites other Member States to do so;
5. Invites Member States to give favorable consideration to requests of countries desirous of participating in the peaceful exploration of outer space for appropriate training and technical assistance on a bilateral basis or on any other basis they see fit;
6. Notes the considerable measure of cooperation in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space underway among Member States;
7. Notes that the United States and the Soviet Union have reached an agreement looking toward cooperation in the fields of satellite meteorology, communications and magnetic field mapping;
8. Encourages Member States to continue and extend cooperative arrangements so that all Members can benefit from the peaceful exploration and use of outer space;
9. Believes that international cooperation can be beneficial in furthering the exploration of the solar system;
1. Notes with appreciation (a) the Second Report of the World Meteorological Organization the advancement of atmospheric sciences and their application in the light of developments in outer space and (b) the organizational and financial steps taken by the Fourth Congress of the World Meteorological Organization in response to Resolutions 1721 C (XVI) and 1802 III (XVII);
2. Endorses efforts toward the establishment of a World Weather Watch under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization to include the use of satellite as well as conventional data with data centers to facilitate the effectiveness of the system ;
3. Urges that Member States (a) extend their national and regional meteorological efforts to implement the expanded program of the World Meteorological Organization, (b) cooperate in the establishment of the World Weather Watch, and (c) increase research and training in the atmospheric sciences;
4. Invites the World Meteorological Organization to make a progress report to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in 1964 relating to its activities in this field ;
1. Notes with appreciation the Second Report of the International Telecommunication Union on Telecommunication and the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space;
2. Welcomes the decisions of the October-November 1963 Extraordinary Administrative Radio Conference convened by the International Telecommunication Union on the allocation of frequency bands for space communication and procedures for their use as a step in the development of space radio communications;
3. Invites the International Telecommunication Union to make a progress report to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in 1964 relating to its activities in this field;