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II. But with our industry we must likewise be steady, settled, and careful, and oversee our own affairs with our own eyes, and not trust too much to others; for Poor Richard says,
" I never saw an oft.removed tree,
And again, " Three removes are as bad as a fire;" and again, “ Keep thy shop, and thy shop will keep thee;" and again, “ If you would have your business done,
go; if not, send.”
“ He that by the plow would thrive,
66 The And again,
of a master will do more work 66 than both his hands;" and again, “ Want of care “ does us more damage than want of knowledge;" and again, “ Not to oversee workmen, is to leave them your
purse open.” Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many; for, “ In the affairs of this world, men
are saved, not by faith, but by the want of it :) But a man's own care is profitable; for, you
would « have a faithful servant, and one you like, - serve your« self." "A little neglect may breed great mischief : “ for want of a nail, the shoe was lost; for want of a “ shoe, the horse was lost; and for want of a horse, the “ rider was lost," being overtaken and slain hy the enemy; all for want of a little care about a horseshoe-nail.
III. So much for industry, my friends, and attention to one's own business ; but to these we must add frugality, if we would make our industry more certainly successful. " A man may,” if he knows not how to save as he gets, “ keep his nose all his life to the grind-stone, 66 and die not worth a groat at last.” 66 A fat kitchen " makes a lean will;"
“ Many estates are spent in the getting,
“ If you would be wealthy, think of saving as well as (6 of getting.”
“ The Indies have not made Spain rich, " because her out-goes are greater than her in-comes."
Away then, with your expensive follies, and you will not then have so much cause to complain of hard times, heavy taxes, and chargeable families; for
« Women and wine, game and deceit,
“ Make the wealth small, and the want great." And farther, “ What maintains one vice would bring
up two children.” You may think perhaps, that a little tea, or a little punch now and then, diet a little more costly, clothes a little finer, and a little entertainment now and then, can be no great matter ; but remember, Many a little makes a mickle.”
" Beware 66 of little expences ;
:" " A small leak will sink a great ship,” as Poor Richard says; and again, “ dainties love, shall beggars prove;" and moreover, “ Fools make feasts, and wise men eat them.”*
* The following passage from Deformity: an Essay. By William Hay, Esq. (2nd Edn. p. 24.) is so much to the purpose of this paragraph, that I shall give it as a Note, not ouły for ihe instruction, but also for the amusement of the reader. Speaking of Temperance, he says
“ I am persuaded that many might arrive at Cornaro's Age, “ if ihey did but follow his Example. On thioking upon this Sub“ject, I have adopted many Maxims, which to the world will
seem Paradoxes ; as certain true Geographical Theorems do to “ those, who are unacquaioted with the Globe. I hold” “ That “ the smallest Liquors are best. That there ocver was a good Bowl “ of Panch; nor a good Bottle of Champaign, Burgundy, or Claret. " That the best dinner is one Dish. That an Entertainment grows
worse in proportion as the Number of Dishes increase. That a “ Fast is better than a Lord Mayor’s Feast. That no Conoisseur “ ever understood good Eating. That do Mioister of State or Am“ bassador ever gave a good Entertainment. No King ever sale “ down to a good table. And that the Peasant fares better than the “ Prince, &c. &c. &c. Being inspired with such sentiments, what “ Wonder is it if I sometimes break out into such Ejaculations. O “ Temperance !” “ Thou Patroness of Health! Thou Protector of “ Beauty! Thou Prolonger of Life! Thou losurer of Pleasure ! “ Thou Promoter of Business! Thou Guardian of the Person ! “ Thou Preserver of the Understanding! Thou Parent of every “ intellectual Improvement, and of every moral Virtue !"
Here you are all got together to this sale of fineries and nick-nacks. You call them goods ; but, if you do not take care, they will prove evils to some of you. You expect they will be sold cheup, and, perhaps, they may for less than they cost; but, if you have no occasion for them, they must be deur to you. Remember what Poor Richard says :
66 Buy what thou hast no need of, and ere long thou shalt sell thy necessarics."
And again, 66 'At a great penny-worth pause a while.” He means, that perhaps the cheapness is apparent only, and not real; or the bargain, by straitening thee in thy business, may do thee more harm than good. For in another place he says, Many have been ruined by buying “ good pennyworths.” Again, “ It is foolish to lay out “money in the purchase of repentance;" and yet this folly is practised every day at auctions, for want of minding the Almanack. Many a one, for the sake of finery on the back, have gone with a hungry belly, and half starved their families; “ Silks aud sattins, scarlets " and velvets, put out the kitchen-fire,” as Poor Rich. ard says. These are not the necessaries of life; they can scarcely be called the conveniences; and yet only because they look pretty, how many want to have them ? By these and other extravagances, the genteel are reduced to poverty, and forced to borrow of those whom they formerly despised, but who, through industry and frugality, have maintained their standing; in which case it appears plainly, that, “ A ploughman on his legs is " higher than a gentleman on his knees," as Poor Richard says. Perhaps they have had a small estate left them, which they knew not the getting of; they think " It is day, and will never be night;" that a little to be spent out of so much is not worth minding ; but “ Al
ways taking out of the meal-tub, and never putting "in, soon comes to the bottom," as Poor Richard says ; and then, “ When the well is dry, they know the worth " of water.” But this they might have known before, if they had taken his advice : “ If you would know the " value of money, go and try to borrow some;" for
“ He that goes a borrowing goes a sorrowing,” as Poor Richard says : and, indeed, so does he that lends to such people, when he goes to get it in again. Poor Dick farther advises, and says,
« Fond pride of dress is sure a very curse ;
" Ere fancy you consult, consult your purse." And again, “ Pride is as loud a beggar as Want, " and a great deal more saucy.”. When you have bought one fine thing, you must buy ten more, that your appearance may be all of a piece; but Poor Dick says, It is easier to suppress the first desire, than to
satisfy all that follow it :" And it is as truly folly for the poor to ape the rich, as for the frog to swell, in order to equal the ox.
66 Vessels large may venture more,
“ But little boats should keep near shore." It is, however, a folly soon punished: for as Poor Richard says, “ Pride, that dines on vanity, sups on “ contempt ;" “ Pride breakfasted with Plenty, dined “ with Poverty, and supped with Infamy." And, after all, of what use is this pride of appearance, for which so much is risked, so much is suffered?' It cannot promote health, nor ease pain; it makes no increase of merit in the person, it creates envy, it hastens misfortune.
But what madness must it be to run in debt for those superfluities? We are offered by the terms of this sale, six months credit ; and that, perhaps, has induced some of us to attend it, because we cannot spare the ready money, and hope now to be fine without it. But, ah! think what you do when you run in debt; you give to another power over your liberty. If you cannot pay at the time, you will be ashamed to see your creditor; you will be in fear when you speak to him; you will make poor pitiful sneaking excuses, and by degrees, come to lose your veracity, and sink into base, downright lying ; for, 56 The second vice is lying, the first is running in
" debt," as Poor Richard says; and again, to the same purpose, 66 Lying rides upon Debt's back :” whereas a free-born Englishman ought not to be ashamed nor afraid to speak to any man living. But poverty often deprives a man of all spirit and virtue. “ It is hard for an empty
bag to stand upright.” What would you think of that prince, or
of that government, who should issue an edict forbidding you to dress like a gentleman, or a gentlewoman, on pain of imprisonment or servitude? Would you
you were free, had a right to dress as you please, and that such an edict would be a breach of your privileges, and such a government tyrannical? And yet you are about to put yourself under that tyranny, when you run in debt for such dress ! . Your creditor has authority, at his pleasure, to deprive you of your liberty, by confining you in gaol for life, or by selling you for a servant, if you should not be able to pay him. When you have got your bargain, you may, perhaps, think little of payment; but as Poor Richard says,
66 Creditors have better memories than deba tors;”
;" 66 Creditors are a superstitious sect, great observers of set days and times.” The day comes round before you are aware, and the demand is made before you are prepared to satisfy it; or, if you bear your debt in mind, the time which at first seemed so long, will, as it lessens, appear extremely short. Time will seem to have added wings to his heels as well as his shoulders. 66 Those have a short Lent, who owe
money to be paid at Easter.” At present, perhaps, you may think yourselves in thriving circumstances, and that you can bear a little extravagance without injury; but
“ For age and want save while you may,
" No inorning-sun lasts a whole day." Gain may be temporary and uncertain, but ever, while
you live, expence is constant and certain ;": « easier to build two chimnies, han to keep one in “ fuel," as Poor Richard says : So, " Rather go to 6 bed supperless than rise in debt.”
." 66 It is