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In 1670, William Sayle, under the direction of the proprietors, made a settlement at Port Royal, within the limits of South Carolina. The next year, dissatisfied with this station, he removed his colony northward, to a neck of land between Ashley and Cooper rivers, where he laid out a town, which, in honour of the king then reigning, he called Charleston. Dying soon after, Sir John Yeomans, who had for several years been governor at Clarendon, was appointed to succeed him. This new settlement attracted at first many inhabitants from that at Clarendon, and at length entirely exhausted it. Being remote from Albemarle, the proprietors established a separate government over it, and hence arose the distinctive appellations of North and South Carolina.
The prosperity of the northern colony was retarded by domestic dissensions. To allay them Seth Sothel, one of the proprietors, was appointed chief magistrate. His conduct, far from restoring quiet and contentment, increased the disorders which had before prevailed. He is represented as the most corrupt and rapacious of colonial governors. He plundered the innocent, and received bribes from felons. For six years the inhabitants endured his injustice and oppression. They then seized him, with a view of sending him to England for trial. At his request, he was detained and tried by the assembly, who banished him from the colony.
His successor was Philip Ludwell, of Virginia, and to him succeeded John Archdale, who was a
quaker and one of the proprietors. Both were popular governors ; under their administration, the colony prospered and the people were happy. In 1693, at the request of the Carolinians, the constitution of Locke was abrogated by the proprietors, and each colony was afterwards ruled by a governor, council, and house of representatives.
In 1707, a company of French protestants arrived and seated themselves on the river Trent, a branch of the Neuse. In 1710, a large number of Palatines, fleeing from religious persecution in Germany, sought refuge in the same part of the province. To each of these the proprietors granted one hundred acres of land. They lived happy, for a few years, in the enjoyment of liberty of conscience, and in the prospect of competence and ease.
But suddenly a terrible calamity fell upon them. The Tuscarora and Coree Indians, smarting under recent injuries, and dreading total extinction from the encroachment of these strangers, plotted with characteristic secrecy their entire destruction. Sending their families to one of their fortified towns, twelve hundred bowmen sallied forth, and in the same night attacked, in separate parties, the nearest settlements of the Palatines. Men, women, and children were indiscriminately butchered. The savages, with the swiftness and ferocity of wolves, ran from village to village. Before them was the repose of innocence; behind the sleep of death. A few escaping, alarmed the settlements, more remote, and hastened to South Carolina for assistance.
Governor Craven immediately despatched, to the aid of the sister colony, nearly a thousand men, under the command of Colonel Barnwell. After a fatiguing march through a hideous wilderness, they met the enemy, attacked, defeated, and pursued them to their fortified town, which was immediately besieged. In a few days peace, at their solicitation, was concluded, and Colonel Barnwell returned to South Carolina.
The peace was short, and upon the recommencement of hostilities, assistance was again solicited from the southern colony. Colonel James Moore, an active young officer, was immediately despatched, with forty white men and eight hundred friendly Indians. He found the
enemy in a fort near Cotechny river. After a siege, which continued more than a week, the fort was taken, and eight hundred Indians made pri
The Tuscaroras, disheartened by this defeat, migrated, in 1713, to the north, and joined the celebrated confederacy, denominated the Five Nations. The others sued for peace, and afterwards continued friendly.
Until 1729, the two Carolinas, though distinct for many purposes, remained under the superintendence and controul of the same proprietors. Neither had been prosperous; and the interests of the governors and governed being apparently adverse to each other, the latter became discontented and refractory. They complained to the
king, who directed inquiry to be made in his courts. The charter which he had granted was declared forfeited, and over each colony, royal governments, entirely unconnected with each other, were established.
Soon after this event, the soil in the interior of North Carolina was found to be superior in fertility to that on the sea coast. The settlements, consequently, advanced rapidly into the wilderness. From the northern colonies, particularly Pennsylvania, multitudes were allured to this region by the mildness of the climate, and by the facility of obtaining in abundance all the necessaries of life. At peace with the Indians, and fortunate in her governors, the colony continued to prosper until the commencement of the troubles which preceded the revolution.
This colony, and that of North Carolina, were, as has already been stated, included in the same charter. In 1670, Governor Sayle made, at Port Royal, the first permanent settlement within its limits. The next year, he founded Old Charleston, on the banks of the river Ashley. In 1684, all the freemen, meeting at this place, elected representatives to sit in the colonial parliament, accordingt o the provisions of the constitution prepared by Mr. Locke.
Several circumstances contributed to promote. the settlement of this colony. The conquest of New York induced many of the Dutch to resort to it. From England, puritans came to avoid the profanity and licentiousness which disgraced the court of Charles the Second; and cavaliers to retrieve their fortunes, exhausted by the civil wars, The arbitrary measures of Louis XIV. drove many French protestants into exile, some of whom crossed the Atlantic and settled in Carolina. Many of these exiles were rich; all were industrious, and by their exemplary demeanor gained the good will of the proprietors.
The situation of Charleston being found inconvenient, the inhabitants, in 1680, removed to Oyster Point, where a new city was laid out, to which the name of the other was given. In the same year, commenced a war with the Westoes, a powerful tribe of Indians, which threatened great injury to the colony. Peace, however, was soon restored. In 1690, Seth Sothel, one of the proprietors, having, for corrupt conduct, been driven from North Carolina, appeared suddenly at Charleston, and, aided by a powerful faction, assumed the reins of government. afterwards he was removed from office.
The proprietors, having observed the good conduct of the French protestants, directed the governor to permit them to elect representatives, a privilege which they had never yet exercised. The English Episcopalians, unwilling that any of