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of trade. Under this license, he had made a small settlement on the island of Kent, and, when the grant was made to Lord Baltimore, refused to submit to his authority. He persuaded the natives that the “ new comers were Spaniards, and enemies to the Virginians. An Indian war was the consequence, which continued several years, aud was productive of considerable distress.
Clayborne was indicted and convicted of murder, piracy, and sedition; and fleeing from justice, his estate was confiscated. He applied to the king for redress, but after a full hearing, was dismissed without obtaining any order in his favour. When the civil war, between the king and parliament, began, he embraced the cause of the latter, returned to Maryland, and, by his intrigues fomented, in 1645, a rebellion against its rulers, who were attached to the royal cause. Calvert, the governor, was compelled to fly to Virginia, and the insurgents seized the reins of government. The next year, however, the revolt was suppressed and tranquillity restored.
But after the parliament had triumphed over the king, they appointed commissioners for “ reducing and governing the colonies within the bay of Chesapeake.” Among these was Clayborne, the evil genius of Maryland. The proprietor, consenting to acknowledge the authority of parliament, was permitted to retain his station, but was unable to preserve tranquillity. The distractions of England, finding their way into the colony, occasioned a civil war, which ended in the discomfiture of the governor and Roman Catholics.
The next assembly, which was entirely under the influence of the victorious party, ordained that persons professing the Catholic religion should not be considered within the protection of the laws. Thus were they ungratefully persecuted by men whom they had taken to their bosom, and in a colony which they had founded. Laws unfavourable to the quakers were also enacted; and here, as in England, the upper house was voted to be useless. : At the restoration, in 1660, Philip Calvert was appointed governor, and the ancient order of things restored. The colony then contained about twelve thousand inhabitants.
In 1676, died Cecil, Lord Baltimore, the father of the province. For more than forty years, he had directed its affairs as proprietor, and displayed, in all his conduct, a benevolent heart and enlightened understanding. Although he lived in an age of bigotry, he was liberal in his opinions; and for all his exertions to contribute to the happiness of his fellow beings, he desired no reward but their gratitude. This reward he received. The records of the Maryland assembly contain frequent memorials of the respect and affection of the
people. He was succeeded, as proprietor, by his eldest son, Charles, who had, for several years, been governor of the colony, and displayed the same amiable qualities which had rendered his father respected and beloved.
In the year 1689, the epoch of the revolution in England, the repose of Maryland was again disturbed. A rumour was artfully circulated, that the Catholics had leagued with the Indians to destroy all the Protestants in the province. An armed association was immediately formed, for the defence of the Protestant religion, and for asserting the rights of King William and Queen Mary. The magistrates attempted to oppose by force this association; but, meeting with few supporters, were compelled to abdicate the government.
King William directed those who had assumed the supreme authority to exercise it in his name; and for twenty-seven years the crown retained the entire controul of the province. In 1716, the proprietor was restored to his rights; and he and his descendants continued to enjoy them until the commencement of the revolution. The people then assumed the government, adopted a constitution, and refused to admit the claims of Lord Baltimore to jurisdiction or property.
IN 1630, Charles the First granted to Sir Robert Heath all the territory between the 30th and 36th degrees of north latitude, and extending from the Atlantic ocean to the South sea, by the name of Carolina. Under this grant, no settlement was made. Between 1640 and 1650, persons suffering from religious intolerance in Virginia,
fled beyond her limits, and, without license from any source, occupied that portion of North Carolina, north of Albemarle sound. They found the winters mild and the soil fertile. As their cattle swine procured their own support in the woods and multiplied fast, they were enabled, with little labour, to live in the enjoyment of abundance. Their number was annually augmented ; they acknowledged no superior upon earth, and obeyed no laws but those of God and nature.
In 1661, another settlement was made, near the mouth of Clarendon river, by adventurers from Massachusetts. The land being sterile and the Indians hostile, they, in 1663, abandoned it. Immediately afterwards, their place was supplied by emigrants from Barbados, who invested Sir John Yeomans with the authority of governor.
Sir Robert Heath having neglected to comply with the conditions of his patent, the king, in 1663, granted the same territory to Lord Clarendon and seven others, and invested them with ample powers of government over those who should inhabit it. To encourage emigration, they gave public assurances, that all who might remove to their territory, should enjoy unrestricted religious liberty, and be governed by a free assembly. The settlers on Albemarle sound were, on certain conditions, allowed to retain their lands. A government over them was organized, at the head of which a Mr. Drummond was placed. With the regulations imposed, they were dissatisfied, and revolted; but their grievances were redressed, and, in 1668, they returned to their duty.
At the request of the proprietors, the celebrated John Locke, whose political writings were then much read and admired, prepared for the colony a constitution of government. It provided that a chief officer, to be called the palatine, and to hold his office during life, should be elected from among the proprietors; that a hereditary nobility, to be called landgraves and caziques, should be created; and that, once in two years, representatives should be chosen by the freeholders. All these, with the proprietors or their deputies, were to meet in one assembly, which was to be called the parliament, and over which the palatine was to preside. The parliament could deliberate and decide only upon propositions, laid before it by a grand council composed of the palatine, nobility, and deputies of the proprietors.
This constitution, however wise it might seem to English politicians, was not adapted to the sentiments and habits of the people for whom it was prepared. Its aristocratic features displeased them. The measures adopted to introduce and enforce it, produced, in connection with other causes, an insurrection, in the progress of which the palatine and the deputies were seized and imprisoned. Application was made to Virginia for assistance in restoring order; but the fear of punishment induced the insurgents to submit, before an armed force could be arrayed against them.