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causes.

terms offered were so favourable that many accept, ed the invitation.

A few years afterwards, the repose of the colony began to be disturbed by domestic disputes, Some of the inhabitants, having purchased their lands of the Indians previous to the conveyance from the duke, refused to pay rent to the proprietors. Others were discontented from different

In 1672, an insurrection took place, the people assumed the government, and chose James Carteret, the son of Philip, their governor. The father returned to England, and obtained from the proprietors such favourable concessions and promises as quieted the people, and induced them again to submit to his authority.

Lord Berkeley disposed of his property, rights, and privileges in the teritory, to Edward Billinge; and he, being involved in debt, consented that they should be sold for the benefit of his creditors.

William Penn, Gawen Lowrie, and Nicholas Lucas, were appointed trustees for that purpose. In 1676, the trustees and Sir George Carteret made partition of the territory, they taking the western, and he the eastern portion.

West Jersey was then divided into one hundred shares, which were separately sold. Some of the purchasers emigrated to the country, and all made great exertions to promote its population. Possessing the

powers

of

government, as well as the right of soil, they formed a constitution, in which, for the encouragement of emigrants, they secured to them ample privileges.

But previous to the transfer from Berkeley to Billinge, the Dutch being at war with England, reconquered the country, and retained it until 1674, when it was restored by treaty. A new patent was then granted to the duke, including the same territory as the former. In 1678, Sir Edmund Andross, who had been appointed his sole governor in America, claimed jurisdiction over the Jerseys, insisting that the conquest by the Dutch divested the proprietors of all their rights.

He forcibly seized, transported to New York, and there imprisoned those magistrates who refused to acknowledge his authority. He imposed a duty upon all goods imported, and upon the property of all who came to settle in the country. Of this injustice the inhabitants loudly. complained to the duke ; and at length their repeated remonstrances constrained him to refer the matter to commissioners.

Before them the proprietors appeared. In strong language they asserted, and by strong arguments supported their claim to the privileges of freemen. They represented, that the king had granted to the duke the right of government as well as the right of soil ? that the duke had transferred the same rights to Berkeley and Carteret, and they to the present proprietors.

“ That only,” they added, “could have induced us to purchase lands and emigrate. And the reason is plain : to all prudent men, the government of any place is more inviting than the soil; for what is good land without good laws ? What but an assurance that we should enjoy civil and religious privileges, could have tempted us to leave a culti

vated country and resort to a gloomy wilderness? What have we gained, if, after adventuring in this wilderness many thousands of pounds, we are yet to be taxed at the mere will and pleasure of another? What is it but to say, that people, free by law under their prince at home, are at his mercy in his plantations abroad?

“ We humbly say, that we have lost none of our liberty by leaving our country; that the duty imposed upon us is without precedent or parallel ; that, had we foreseen it, we should have preferred any other plantation in America. Besides, there is no limit to this power; since we are, by this. precedent, taxed without any law, and thereby excluded from our English right of assenting to taxes, what security have we of any thing we possess? We can call nothing our own, but are tenants at will, not only for the soil, but for our personal estates. Such conduct has destroyed governments, but never raised one to any true greatness.”

The commissioners adjudged the duties illegal and oppressive, and they were not afterwards demanded. Emigrants continued to arrive and the country to prosper. In 1681, the governor of West Jersey summoned a general assembly, by which several fundamental laws were enacted, establishing the rights of the people, and defining the powers of rulers.

In 1682, the territory of East Jersey passed from Carteret to William Penn, and twenty-three associates, mostly of the quaker persuasion. They appointed Robert Barclay, author of the Apology for the Quakers,” governor over it for life. The multitude of proprietors, and the frequent transfers and subdivisions of shares, introduced such confusion in titles to land, and such uncertainty as to the rights of government, that for twenty years afterwards, both Jerseys were in a state of continued disturbance and disorder. In 1702, the proprietors, weary of contending with each other, and with the people, surrendered the right of government to the crown. Queen Anne reunited the two divisions, and appointed lord Cornbury governor over the provinces of New Jersey and New York.

These provinces continued, for several years, to be ruled by the same governor, but each chose a separate assembly. In 1738, the inhabitants, by petition to the king, desired that they might, in future, have a separate governor.

Their request was granted, Lewes Morris being the first that was appointed.

In the same year, a college was founded at Princeton and called Nassau Hall. New-Jersey then contained above forty thousand inhabitants. Being remote from Canada, the source of most of the Indian wars which afflicted the northern colonies, it enjoyed a complete exemption from that terrible calamity, and until the commencement of the revolution, furnished no materials for history.

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CHAPTER VIII.

DELAWARE.

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This colony was first settled by a company of Swedes and Finns, under the patronage of King Gustavus Adolphus. They came over in 1627, and landing at cape Henlopen, were so charmed with its appearance, that they gave it the name of Paradise Point. The country they called New Sweden, and the river Delaware, New Swedeland Stream.

They purchased of the Indians the lands on both sides of that river, from the sea to the falls, and seated themselves at the mouth of Christina creek, near Wilmington.

Being frequently molested by the Dutch, who claimed a right to the country, they for their protection built forts at Christina, Lewiston, and Tinicum. The last was their seat of government, and there John Printz, their governor, erected an elegant mansion, which he named Printz Hall.

In 1651, the Dutch built a fort at New Castle. Printz considering this place to be within the Swedish territories, formally protested against the proceeding. Risingh, his successor, made a visit, under-the guise of friendship, to the commander of the fort, and being accompanied by thirty men, treacherously took possession of it, while enjoying his hospitality.

Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New

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