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lic officers.

law of the land ; and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or

laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding. Oath of pub.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States, and of the several States, shall be bound

by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution : No religious but no religious test shall ever be required as a quali

fication to any office or public trust under the United States.




The ratification of the conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the States so ratifying the same.

Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of the

States present, the seventeenth day of September,
in the

of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty seven, and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names.

Go. WASHINGTON, President, and Deputy from Virginia.

John Langdon,
Nicholas Gilman.

Nathaniel Gorham,
Rufus King

William Samuel Johnson,
Roger Sherman.

Alexander Hamilton.

William Livingston,
David Brearley,
William Patterson,
Jonathan Dayton.

Benjamin Franklin,

Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George Clymer, Thomas Fitzsimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouverneur Morris.


George Reed,
Gunning Bedford, jun.
John Dickinson,
Richard Bassett,
Jacob Broom.

Daniel Carroll.

John Blair,
James Madison, jr.

William Blount,
Richard Dobbs Spaight,
Hugh Williamson.

John Rutledge,
Charles C. Pinckney,
Charles Pinckney,
Pierce Butler.

William Few,
Abraham Baldwin.



James M'Henry,
Daniel of St. Tho. Jenifer,







Monday, September 17th, 1787. Present—The State of New Hampshire, Massachusetts,

Connecticut, Mr. Hamilton from New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.

Resolved, That the preceding Constitution be laid before the United States in Congress assembled, and that it is the opinion of this Convention, that it should afterwards be submitted to a Convention of Delegates, chosen in each State by the people thereof, under the recommendation of its Legislature, for their assent and ratification; and that each Convention assenting to, and ratifying the same, should give notice thereof to the United States in Congress assembled.

Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Convention, that, as soon as the Conventions of nine States shall have ratified this Constitution, the United States in Congress assembled should fix a day on which electors should be appointed by the States which shall have ratified the same, and a day on which electors should assemble to vote for the President, and the time and place for commencing proceedings under this Constitution. That after such publication, the electors should be appointed, and the Senators and Representatives elected: That the electors should meet on the day fixed for the election of the President, and should transmit their votes certi

fied, signed, sealed and directed, as the Constitution requires, to the Secretary of the United States in Congress assembled, that the Senators and Representatives should convene at the time and place assigned; that the Senators should appoint a President of the Senate, for the sole purpose of receiving, opening and counting the votes for President; and, that after he shall be chosen, the Congress, together with the President, should, without delay, proceed to execute this Constitution.

By the unanimous order of the Convention,



W. JACKSON, Secretary.



SEPTEMBER 17th, 1787. Sır: We have now the honour to submit to the consideration of the United States in Congress assembled, that Constitution which has appeared to us the most advisable.

The friends of our country have long seen and desired that the power of making war, peace, and treaties; that of levying money, and regulating commerce, and the correspondent executive and judicial authorities, should be fully and effectually vested in the general government of the Union; but the impropriety of delegating such extensive trust to one body of men is evident-hence results the necessity of a different organization.

It is obviously impracticable in the federal government of these States, to secure all rights of independent sovereignty to each, and yet provide for the interest and safety of all.

Individuals entering into society must give up a share of liberty to preserve the rest. The magnitude of the sacrifice must depend as well on situation and circumstance, as on the object to be obtained. It is at all times difficult to draw with precision the line between those rights which must be surrendered, and those which may be reserved ; and, on the present occasion, this difficulty was increased by a difference among the several States as to their situation, extent, habits, and particular interests.

In all our deliberations on this subject, we kept steadily in our view that which appears to us the greatest interest of every true American, the consolidation of our Union, in which is involved our prosperity, felicity, safety—perhaps our national existence. This important consideration, seriously and deeply impressed on our minds, led each State in the convention to be less rigid on points of inferior magnitude, than might have been otherwise expected ; and thus, the constitution which we now present, is the result of a spirit of amity, and of that mutual deference and concession, which the peculiarity of our political situation rendered indispensable.

That it will meet the full and entire approbation of every State, is not perhaps to be expected; but each will doubtless consider, that had her interest alone been consulted the consequences might have been particularly disagreeable or injurious to others; that it is liable to as few exceptions as could reasonably have been expected, we hope and believe; that it may promote the lasting welfare of that country so dear to us all, and secure her freedom and happiness, is our most ardent wish. With great respect, we have the honour to be, sir, your Excellency's most obedient and humble servants. By the unanimous order of the Convention:

Go WASHINGTON, Presid't. His Excellency the President of Congress.

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