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Officers mili- pointment of the officers, and the authority of train
ing the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatover seat of soever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles
square) as may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of
the Legislature of the State in which the same shall forts, arsen. be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock
yards, and other needful buildings;-And
To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or office thereof.
als, docks, &c.
To make general laws to carry powers into effect.
Importation of slaves al. Jowed till 1808.
Habeas Cor. pus.
The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year eighteen hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.
The privilege of the writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion
or invasion the public safety may require it. Attainder No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be facto laws. passed.
No capitation, or other direct tax, shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State.
and ex post
No exporta. tion duty.
between the States.
No preference shall be given by any regulation of Commerce commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.
No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but Money, how in consequence of appropriations made by law; and Treasury. a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published Tehebe pubfrom time to time.
No title of nobility shall be granted by the United No nobility. States: and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, Foreign pre or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, tles. or foreign State.
sents and u.
Other pow: ers denied to States.
No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or powers de confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; States. coin money; emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.
No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws: and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.
No State shall, without the consent of Congress, Further de lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war ers to states.
in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.
Electors to meet and to
The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. . He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same 'term,
be elected as follows Electors, Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the pointed. Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors,
equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.
The electors shall meet in their respective States, elect a Presi. and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at
least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the
United States, directed to the President of the Senate. Their votes The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of Congress. the Senate and House of Representatives, open all
the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority,
dent and Vice Presi dent.
and have an equal number of votes, then the House Representaof Representatives shall immediately choose, by bal- choose if lot, one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall, in like manner, choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall
Votes by be taken by States, the representation from each States. State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from twothirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the Vice Presigreatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice-President.*
The Congress may determine the time of choosing Election the electors, and the day on which they shall give of electors. their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.
No person except a natural born citizen, or a citi- Qualifica. zen of the United States, at the time of the adoption sident. of this constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.
In case of the removal of the President from office, Removal, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge President. the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and
tions of Pre
death, &c. of
* This clause of the constitution has been amended. See 12th article of the Amendments, page 33.
Compensa tion of Presi dent.
Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased or diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.
Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation :
“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the constitution of the United States."
Powers and duties of the President.
The President shall be commander in chief of the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.
He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided
two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he Appoint.
shall nominate, and by and with the advice and coninent of pub- sent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other
ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme court,