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classed.

Vacancies how filled.

tion of Sena.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in con- Senators sequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that onethird may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments, until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. No person

shall be a Senator who shall not have Qualificaattained to the age of thirty years, and been nine tors. years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice-President of the United States shall be Vice-Presi President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, un- side. less they be equally divided.

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and Officers of also a President pro-tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all peachments

:

. impeachments: when sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried the Chief Justice shall preside: and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend Judgment on

impeachfarther than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honour, trust or profit under the United States: but the party con- Effect of. victed shall nevertheless be liable and subject to in

dent to pre

Senate.

ment

dictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.

SECTION IV.

Elections, when and how held.

The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Congress asseinble an nually.

SEOTION V.

Elections, how judged.

Quorum.

Absent members.

Rules.

Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorised to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behaviour, and with the concurrence of two-thirds expel a member.

Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress

Expulsion.

Journals to be kept and published.

Yeas and nays.

Adjourn. ments.

shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

SECTION VI.

tion.

The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensacompensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases except treason, Privileges. felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Members not time for which he was elected, be appointed to any office. civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time: and no person holding any office under the United Officers of States shall be a member of either House during his be members. continuance in office.

appointed to

Gov. cannot

SECTION VII.

to

All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the Revenue House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose, or concur with, amendments, as on other bills.

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Bills to be Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it be- the Presi. come a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if His powers not he shall return it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the

dent.

over them.

on his veto.

Bills to be laws if not

.

Proceedings objections at large on their journal and proceed to

reconsider it. If after such reconsideration twothirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of

each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned in returned by the President within ten days (Sundays

excepted,) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

Joint orders or resolutions to be approved by President.

SECTION VIII.

Powers of
Congress-

Pay debts

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect Lay taxes, taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts

and provide for the common defence and general General wel welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts Duties uni. and excises shall be uniform throughout the United

States.

To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

fare

form

Borrow money.

tion.

Ineasures.

ing.

Post roads.

arts and

courts.

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and Commerce. among the several States, and with the Indian tribes;

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and Naturalizauniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies through- Bankruptcy. out the United States;

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of Coin money. foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and weights and measures ;

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting Counterfeitthe securities and current coin of the United States;

To establish post offices and post roads ;

To promote the progress of science and useful arts, Promote by securing for limited times to authors and inventors science. the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;

To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme Inferior court;

To define and punish piracies and felonies com- Piracies, mitted on the high seas and offences against the law of nations;

To declare war, grant letters of marque and repri- Declare war, sal, and make rules concerning captures on land or captures. water;

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation Raise of

money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years ;

To provide and maintain a navy;

To make rules for the government and regulation Rules and of the land and naval forces;

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute Call out mithe laws of the Union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions ;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplin- Organize ing the militia, and for governing such part of them militia. as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the ap

&c.

armies.

Navy.

articles of war.

litia.

and govern

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