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Effects of Anncaling Gray and Malleable Iron Bars in Copper

Oxide Packing

261

Discussion

269

The Application of Powdered Coal to Malleable Annealing

Furnaces

270

Efficient Use of Pulverized Coal in Malleable Foundry Practice 277

Powdered Coal as a Fuel in the Foundry....

303

Discussion--Use of Powdered Coal in Malleable Iron Found-

ries

313

Melting in Air Furnace with Fuel Oil.

316

The Refining of Cupola Malleable Iron in the Electric Fur-

322

Relation Between Machining Qualities of Malleable Castings

and Physical Tests

330

Discussion

338

A Note on Britain's Experimental Foundry..

343

Report of A. F. A. Committee on Specifications for Malleable

Iron Castings

345

The Elimination of Strains in Iron Castings.

346

Discussion--Eliminating Strains in Iron Castings.

318

The Electric Furnace as an Adjunct to the Cupola.

352

Discussion

361

The Side Blow Converter in the Iron Foundry.

363

Cerium in Cast Iron.....

363

Discussion-Cerium in Cast Iron.

374

Considerations Affecting Brass Melting in the Gray Iron Shop 375

Weeks' Electric Rotating Furnace as Applied to the Brass

Foundry Industry

383

The Care of Foundry Equipment...

396

The Economical Control and Handling of Patterns in a Large

Foundry

402

How to Secure Best Results in Combining Hoisting Apparatus

with Molding Equipment ......

408

Foundry Sand Handling Equipment..

417

Discussion-Foundry Sand Handling Equipment.

429

The Value of a Scrap Pile.....

435

Discussion

444

Concrete Molding Floors.

447

Discussion-Molding Floors

455

Audible Signals in Foundries.

457

Discussion--Audible Signals

464

The Testing of Clays for Foundry Uses.

465

Discussion–Testing Clays for Foundry Use.

477

Refractory Cements

479

Repairing the Broken Stern Post of the Northern Pacific...... 481

List of Illustrations

PAG

CHART SHOWING GROWTH IN MEMBERSHIP OF AMERICAN FOUNDRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION.. 28

RELATION OF UMEER OF APPRENTICES TO NUMBER OF SKILLED WORKMEN.

160

TYPICAL RECORD CARD USED IN UPGRADING SYSTEMS..

162

STANDARD CARBON-IRON
CURVE.....

242

DIAGRAM OF OIL METER.

253

F16. 1-MICROGRAPH OF MALLEABLE IRON WHICH CONTAINS MORE THAN 20 PER

CENT COPPER

262

F19. 2-CROSS-SECTION OF AMALIEABLE IRON BAR ANNEALED IN COPPER OXIDE

PACKING

262

Fig. 3.-MICROGRAPH OF OUTSIDE EDCE OF BAR SHOWN IN Fig. 2--NOTE PEARLITE

IN CENTER

263

Fig. 4-Shows THE DIVIDING LINE BETWEEN A AND B FIG 2.

264

Fig. 5--MICROGRAPH FROM THE CENTER OF BAR, F. 2--XOTE THE LARGE PATCH
OF FERRITE

263

FIG. 0-CROSY-SECTION OF A GRAY-IRON BAR ANNEALED IN COPPER OXIDE PACKING... 266

F10. 7--This SHOWS THE LIYE BETWEEN 4 AND B, Fig. 6--DARK PORTIONS CON-

TAIN COPPER

266

Fig. - STRUCTURE OF B AND C, Fio. 6, IS SHOTX AREA CHAS THE CHAR

ACTERISTIC ОР GRAY JRON

268

Fig. 1.-LONGITUDINAL, SectION A-1, Fig. 2, THROUGH ANNEALING FURNACE....... 271

FIG. 2-TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUG!! ANNEALING FURNACE.

271

Fig. 3-VIEW ALGNG TOPS OF ANXEAIJNG FURNACES.....

274

Fig. 1-DIAGRAM SHOWING MIXING ACTION IS PULVERIZED ('OAL BYRNER.

279

FIG. 2-GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF BURNERS FOR AIR MELTING FURSACE..

281

Fig. 3-FRONT VIEW OF MELTING FURNACE AT ERIE, PA., SHOWING BURNER IN

STALLED COMPLETE

282

Fig. 4-VIEW OF BURNER AND FAN DRIVF.

284

Fig. 5-OPERATING SIDE OF BURNER SHOWING LOCATION CONTROLS.

287

Fig. 6-TEMPERATURE RECORD OP MUFFLE INNEALING OVEN..

290

Fig. 7-DJAGŁAM OF FLAME IGNITION AND FORMATION....

293

Fig. 8--DIAGRAM SJiowixo COMPARATIVE ECONOMY OF PULVERIZED (OAL BURNERS

AND HAND FIRING ON ANNEALING OVEN...

296

Fio, 9-ARRANGEMENT OF TOP BLAST.

300

Fin. 1-RESU:18 OBTAINED Wiri TEST WEDGES OF LOW MANGANESE IRON.

323

FIG. 2-STRUCTURE OF CENTER OF TEST BAR AT 70 DIAMETERS.

325

Fig. 3-STRUCTURE OF RIM or TEST BAR AT 320. DIAMETERS.

327

Fig. 1-END VIEW OF MACHINABILITY TESTING DEVICE....

332

FIG. DIAGRA OF APPARATUS FOR DRILLING TEST...

336

Fio. --HIGH CHILL WHEEL. WHICH IS ANSEALED PROPERLY WOULD HAVE GREATER

STRENGTH ANI, DOUBLE THE MILEAGE.....

350

Fig. 2-INCH BELOW CHILLED FACE or OVERAYNFALEN CHIP OF CHILLED PART

OP WHEEL Mix

350

Fig. 1-A DESIGN FOR A SIMPLE CRUCIBLE-TYPE NON FERROUS MELTING FURNACE.... 378

F19. 2--EFFECT OP IMPROPER FIRING IN CRUCIBLE MELTING FURNACE.

380

F1o. 1--WzFKS' ELECTRIC ROTATING BRASS FURNACE OF AN EARLY TYPE.

389

PAGB

Fig. 2-IMPROVED DESIGN OF ROTATING ELECTRIC BRASS FURNACE..

391

F19. 3-A TYPICAL THREE FURNACE PLAXT...

393

Fig. 1-THE WORK Now HANDLED BY THIS CRANE FORMERLY HANDLED BY A JIB

CRANE-PRODUCTION WAS INCFASED FOUR TIMES BY I'SE ОР

THE CRANE

SHOW

410

Fig. 2- CENTRAL BAY OF FOUNDRY SERVEN RY CRANES ON HIGH AND Low RUN-

WAYS-THE THREE CRANES OPERATING ON THE LOWER LEVEL ARE ('SED IX

CONNECTION WITH MOLDING

412

Fig. S-MATERJAL STORAGE YAR? Op FOUNDRY WyosE INTERIOR IS SHOWN IN Fig.

2-MATERIALS ARE HANDLED BY THE CRANE AND MONORAIL Hoist SHOWN..... 414

Fig. 1-VIEW OF GRAY Iron FOUNDRY WITH COMPLETE MECHANICAL SAND HANDLING

EQUIPMENT

418

Fig. 2- (OXYTYOR UNDER FOUNDRY FLOOR FOR REMOVING USED SAND.

420

FIG 3--CHOSE-UP VIEW OF USED SAND CONVEYOR SHOWING HOPPER FROM FOUNDRY

FLOOR

421

Fig. 4-SCALPING OR ROUGHING SCREEN FOR PRELIMINARY SCREENING ОР I'SED

SAND

422

Fig. 5-FINAL SCREEN AND CENTRIFUGAL TEMPERING MACHINE.

423

FIG. -Row OF OVERHEAD SAND HOP'ERS WUCH SUPPLY SAND TO MOLDERS AS

NEEDED

424

Fig. -INDIVIDUAL OVERHEAD SAXO HOPPERS..

425

Fig. 8-TEMPERED SAND STORAGE Bix SHOWING ('UTTING SAND FEEDERS.

426

Fig. 9-FLAT BELT CONVEYOR POR DISTRUUTING TEMPERED SAND..

427

FIG. 10-MAGNETIC SEPARATOR AND WASTE SAND CONVEYOR.

128

Fig. 1-CROSS-SECTION OF AN ELECTRIC HORN.

458

Fig. 2- Cope CALLING MECHANISM......

460

F!9. 3-THE ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS FOR THE CALLING MECHANISM.

462

FIG. 1--NEAR VIEW OF STERNPOST SHOWING FRACTURE.

482

FIG. 2-FRACTURE CUT OUT LEAVING SPACE FOR THERMIT STEEL TO ENTER.

483

FIG. 3-WAX PATTERN APPLIED PREVIOUS TO BUILDING UP MOLD.

481

FIG. 4-VIEW OP CRUCIBLES AT TIME OF REACTION......

488

FIG. 5-CLOSE-UP VIEW OF FINISHED WAD...

480

FIG. 6-WELD COMPLETED AND RODDER SHIPPED.

490

OF THE

American Foundrymen's Association

INCORPORATED

President

C. S. KOCH
Fort Pitt Steel Castings Co.

Mckeesport, Pa.

Vice President

W. R. BEAN
Eastern Malleable Iron Works

Naugatuck, Conn.
Secretary-Treasurer

C. E. HOYT
Harris Trust Bldg., Chicago

MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS

(In addition to the above)

H. R. ATWATER,

W. A. JANSSEN, Cleveland Osborn Mig. Co., American Steel Foundries, Cleveland, O.

Chicago, Ill. A. O. BACKERT,

S. T. JOHNSTON,
The Penton Publishing Co.,

S. Obermayer Co.,
Cleveland, O.

Chicago, Ill.
R. A. BULL,

C. R. MESSINGER, Duquesne Steel Foundry Co., Sivyer Steel Casting Co., Coraopolis, Pa.

Milwaukee, Wis. H. A. CARPENTER,

V. E. MINICH, General Fire Extinguisher Co., American Foundry Equipment Co., Providence, R. I.

New York City S. B. CHADSEY,

J. P. PERO, Massey-Harris Co., Ltd.,

1217 Boatmen’s Bank Bldg., Brantford, Ont., Canada

St. Louis, Mo. A. E. HOWELL,

A. B. ROOT, JR.,
Phillips & Buttorff Mfg. Co., Hunt-Spiller Mfg. Corporation,
Nashville, Tenn.

Boston, Mass.
J. ROY TANNER,
Pittsburgh Valve, Foundry & Construction Co.,

Pittsburgh, Pa.

viii

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