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Report of A. F. A. Committee on Safety, Sanitation and Fire
The Committee on Safety, Sanitation and Fire Prevention of the American Foundrymen's association recognizes at this time that a new factor, namely the United States Bureau of Standards, is now engaged in compiling new safety codes for various industries, including a standard code for foundries.
Your committee requests the American Foundrymen's association that it be authorized, during the coming year, to keep in touch with the United States Bureau of Standards and to co-operate with the bureau in the compiling of the proposed new foundry code.
Your committee wishes also to bring to the attention of the American Foundrymen's association the fact that various states such as Wisconsin, New Jersey, New York, Ohio and California are all compiling industrial lighting codes or have practically completed such codes. These codes will effect the foundry industry in the states referred to.
It is recommended, therefore, that the American Foundrymen's association through this committee watch the developments of these various state codes.
It is recommended, also that the scope of your committee be enlarged with a view of giving special study to the welfare of employes in foundries and to improving the splendid spirit which has always existed between the employes and the management among the foundries that are members of the American Foundrymen's association.
Accidents cannot be entirely eliminated by mechanical means, foundry regulations, or federal regulations. About 75 per cent of foundry accidents can be eliminated, however, by educational work among employes and by efforts made to safeguard and improve the relations between the management and the men. It is recommended that the American Foundrymen's association send out a questionnaire to all foundries
on its membership, requesting information as to what they are doing along lines of accident prevention and welfare.
In view of the importance, therefore, of all these problems your committee recommends that a Committee on Safety and Accident Prevention be reappointed. It is important that the members who are appointed on this committee should be able to give time and be able to attend to one or two meetings that are held annually.
F. H. ELAM,
Tentative Fire Prevention Regulations 1.-All foundry, pattern and storage buildings shall be of fire
equipped with sprinkler systems. 2.-All pattern storage buildings shall be subdivided by fire walls. 3.—All sections of foundries devoted to the cupola, air furnace, con
verter, crucible, open-hearth or electric furnaces, shall be entirely of
fire-resistive construction. 4.-Foundry cupboards should all be of metal construction. 5.- It is recommended that metal Alasks shall be used in place of
the present wooden flasks, as required, this being a step toward the conservation of wood and also a prevention against fires,
within the foundries. 6.-All oil stores shall be kept within metal containers in fire
resistive oil houses. 7.-All foundries shall have organized fire brigades.
Hold brigade fire drills at irregular intervals, at least once a month.
Have written reports of all brigade drills and fires. 8.-Fire hose shall be used for fire protection purposes only.
Keep all fire appliances clean and accessible, and see that they are fires may start in the fuel and oil supplies, especially in the oils used in mixing the cores. Linseed oil is very dangerous as regards spontaneous combustion if it comes in contact with rags, sacking, waste, or other substances. Spontaneous combustion is also a hazard where accumulation of oil and waste and oily overalls occur in tool cupboards and lockers.
constantly ready for use. 9.-Provide brigades with modern means for fighting fires. 10.-Have regular inspections made for fire hazards. 11.-See that electric wiring is kept in repair and not abused. 12.-Guard against spontaneous combustion in stock, as fires may start
from this source. Spontaneous combustion is a hazard from which
RECOMMENDATIONS 1.-Install the following appliances :
a.-Metal waste containers.
e.-Wire guards on all gas and electric lights. 2.-Forbid the use of “strike-anywhere” matches. 3.-See that electric wiring is kept repair and not abused. 4.-Get co-operation of employes in the care and use of all fire
protection appliances. Employes should be encouraged to report any condition that may cause fire.
What You NEED TO Fight Fire In Your FOUNDRY 1.-Fire extinguishers. 2.-Water pails, casks, and bucket tanks, 3.-Chemical engines. 4.-Axes and hooks. 5.-Stand pipes and hose. 6.-Sprinkler system. 7.-Fire alarm.
COMMON HAZARDS THAT IMPERIL MANY PLANTS 1.-Boilers, radiators and furnaces. 2.-Electric light, heat and power. 3.-Gas light, heat and power. 4.-Oil lamps. 5.-- Candles. 6.- Torches. 7.-Dirty chimneys and flues. 8.—Lighting and spontaneous combustion.
To INSURE FIRE APPLIANCES BEING READY WHEN NEEDED 1.-Be sure to see all water and standpipes are protected from freezing. 2.-See that chemical extinguishers, pails, casks, etc., are clean, acces
sible, and guarded from danger of freezing. 3.-Have extra charges for extinguishers always on hand. 4.-See that all employes understand use of appliances. 5.-Test fire pump regularly. 6.-Replace defective appliances at once. 7.-See that fire appliances are in their proper places at all times,
Uniform Costs in the Foundry
By C. E. KNOEPPEL, New York
Perhaps the greatest problem before American industry today is that of determining accurate cost of production. Industry is becoming so complex, our tax laws are so intricate and the matter of accurate returns are so important that the concern operating without knowledge of costs, is in the least possible position to conduct its business to the best advantage. Another and perhaps the most important reason why costs must be accurately ascertained, is that to enable the manufacturer to determine just what he can voluntarily do in the way of increasing wages and arranging for profit-sharing plans, and if necessary, to offset the unreasonable demands on the part of his workers, he must know where he stands with reference to his production costs.
Some years ago a trade paper contained this choice bit of logic:
“The surgeon, for instance, certainly ought to be satisfied with his job. When he wants an extra five hundred, all he needs to do is to single out one of his well-nourished patrons, prod him viciously just below the first floating rib until he grunts and then utter those three magic (likewise remunerative) words--'appendicitis, operation imperative.' This is effective salesmanship. Could any manufacturer land a contract with such dispatch? Hardly. Which is quite different from the manufacturing business. If a manufacturer wants to squeeze out extra $25, he will have to spend a couple of weeks with his cost cards and figures and sweat and snort and chew his nails way up to the knuckle and finally when he does locate a twenty-five that he might possibly grab if he slips up to it quietly and it does not happen to see him first, along comes unexpected bill for something or other and gobbles it up."
Factors Which May Cause Failure If we eliminate such considerations as lack of capital, unwise credits, extravagance and fraud, there are three factors which whether considered separately or in combination, can cause distress to an industrial concern. These are: Lack of
systematic production methods, failure to ascertain accurate costs, and lack of uniformity in costing or in bidding on work.
It is difficult to bring about agreements as to prices. A manufacturer once stated: “We no sooner agree upon a price, than it is a race to the telephone to see who can take orders at prices a little under those fixed."
A careful study of the situation leads to this conclusion. Agreement as to price is not necessary. The comparing of bids is not altogether an essential. Combination to control a local situation is not the solution. There should be such uniformity in ascertaining and compiling costs and making estimates as to insure against wide differences in prices. In brief a measure making possible stable prices without any general agreement or secret understanding is needed.
I believe that I am safe in saying that there are two fundamentals in business, which stand out so prominently as to admit of no argument.
First: Every manufacturer who furnishes a product of good quality and who can make reasonable deliveries is entitled to his share of the available business at a fair and reasonable margin of profit.
Second: Any concern which purchases a product below the cost of production is enjoying something to which it is not entitled and which really belongs to the manufacturers of the particular product.
Why Bids Are High If, after providing uniformity and accuracy in cost keeping, a concern finds that it is consistently higher in its bidding than others, it can only mean that it is not operating efficiently, or that it is adding too much profit to its costs.
Knowing these things, the company is in a position to check up its weak spots and determine where the faults are and then correct them, which will mean lower costs and better operating conditions. If it can find no opportunity to reduce its cost, and this would be a case indeed, it means reduction in the rate of profit must be made until conditions are better. At any rate uniformity in costs means intelligent competition as well as furnishing a means for increasing operating results. Many manufacturers have told me that they have no objection to the hardest kind of competition when