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shut off, discharges into the burner. Simultaneous with this discharge, oil enters the cylinder which previously contained compressed air, thereby forcing the air through the top connec

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tion into the emptying cylinder, the oil rising therein until the float actuates the switch shutting off the oil supply, throwing through the solenoid the 4-way valve thereby permitting oil to flow from this cylinder to the burner and allowing oil to enter the other cylinder. It will be seen that with each throw of the 4-way valve a definite quantity of oil enters the meter. By attaching a recording counter to the valve handle to record the reversals, knowing the quantity of oil admitted per reversal and the number thereof, the quantity of oil consumed for a given period may be easily computed.

The meter may be simplified by eliminating the electrical control. In this case a pipe cap or flange is used on top in lieu of the indicated casting. The operation is the same except that the 4-way valve is manually operated and oil is allowed to enter the cylinder to a marked prescribed level as indicated on each of the gage glasses.

LINSEED OIL STANDARDS

At the present time there are many core oils on the market, many of which make claim for properties equal and comparable with the accepted basis, standard boiled linseed oil. Oftentimes, too, linseed oil is adulterated with foots and other oils. In order that all foundrymen may have available the standard specifications for boiled linseed oil and other oils, your committee have compiled this data from various sources. The method of making the various tests—both chemical and physical -may be made in accordance with an oil chemist's hand book.

Properties and Tests Raw linseed oil from North American seed shall conform to the following requirements:

Maximum Minimum 150.5 Specific Gravity at

C.....

0.936

0.932 15°.5

or

0.931

0.927

25° Specific Gravity at

C.....

25°
Acid Number
Saponification Number
Unsaponifiable matter, per cent.
Refractive Index at 25°C.
Iodine Number (Hanus).

[blocks in formation]

1.50 1.4805

1.4790 180

H

0.2

Properties and Tests Boiled linseed oil from North American seed shall conform to the following requirements:

Maximum Minimum 150.5 Specific Gravity at

C....

0.945

0.937 150.5 Acid Number

8 Saponification Number

195

189 Unsaponifiable Matter, per cent.

1.5 Refractive Index at 25°C..

1.484

1.479 Iodine Number (Hanus)

178 Ash, per cent

0.2 Manganese, per cent

0.03 Calcium, per cent

0.3 Lead, per cent

0.1 Properties and Tests

(China Wood Oil) Raw tung oil shall conform to the following requirements:

Maximum Minimum 150.5 Specific Gravity at

C......

0.943

0.939 150.5 Acid Number

6 Saponification Number

195

190 Unsaponifiable Matter, per cent.

0.75 Refractive Index at 25°C...

1.520

1.515 Iodine Number (Hubl, 18 hours)

165 Heating Test (Browne's Method), minutes 12 lodine Jelly Test, minutes...

4

AIR FLOATED Pitch STANDARDS FOR CORE SAND BINDER

Many foundrymen now, instead of using synthetic black core compounds, are using air floated pitch without any further admixture. Your committee begs to present a standard for air floated pitch.

Fineness.-Not less than 70 per cent of any sample taken shall pass through a sieve having 200 meshes per square inch; not less than 80 per cent shall pass through a 150-mesh sieve; not less than 90 per cent shall pass through a 100-mesh sieve; not more than 1 per cent shall fail to pass a 40-mesh sieve. All sieves used shall be made in accordance with the present standards, and sieving shall be performed on the material itself without aid of appliances to increase fineness.

Weight.—The weight per cubic foot shall not exceed 42 pounds. This shall be determined by permitting the pitch to fall as it will into a suitable receptacle, without being compressed.

Volatile Matter.-The percentage of volatile matter in the pitch shall not exceed 56 per cent.

Bonding Strength.The tensile strength of briquettes tamped to the same density as that found common to ordinary cores, dried for two

hours in an oven having a temperature of 210 degrees Cent., the area of the briquettes being 1 square inch, shall average not less than 200 pounds, with the briquette mixture consisting of 400 parts of new dry silica sand; 48 parts of fire clay; 33 parts of pulverized pitch, and 50 parts of water. All ingredients for the triquette mixture shall be measured by the volumes they occupy when tapped down, but not compressed.

Shipment.—The pitch must be received in a perfectly dry condition, in tight jute bags securely bound with corrugated paper lining.

W. A. JANSSEN, Chairman
A. H. JAMIESON

J. G. GALVIN
Committee on Steel Foundry Standards.

Discussion

THE CHAIRMAN, MR. R. A. BULL.-I notice that no specifications are suggested as to temperature requirements or temperature tests. Some years ago I was associated with a company which had a great deal of trouble securing pitch of suitable quality in the summertime because it caked in the cars during hot weather. After our experience with that condition we drew up specifications of our own for pitch, including a temperature test. I would like to ask the chairman of the committee what his ideas are as to eliminating or including any such specification.

MR. W. A. JANSSEN.-I regret that that specification has been eliminated from this report, as it is indeed essential. It is important that some specification be made for the temperature of the melting point.

Some Needs of the Malleable Iron

Industry

By W. P. PUTNAM, Detroit

Within the past 10 years manufacturers of malleable iron have awakened to a realization of the necessity of applying more scientific methods in the melting and annealing processes. The gradual change-over from rule-of-thumb methods to exact processes is not yet complete. There are still a number of plants that adhere to the old order, but the chemist, the metallurgist and the mechanical engineer working in close liarmony with the foundryman have made many advances in the manufacture of malleable castings. It has taken some hard knocks to bring about these changes. The inroads made by the steel casting industry into the malleable business was the first big alarm which was sounded and it served well to stir the malleable interests to action.

Chemists and metallurgists have been pointing the way by systematic and painstaking methods of melting and annealing, the mechanical and combustion engineers have made many improvements in heating devices both for melting and annealing furnaces, and the foundrymen have steadily improved their equipment until now we have many modern plants producing better castings than ever before.

Work Yet to be Done

In spite of all that has been accomplished there yet remains a number of improvements that must be generally adopted before we can say that we have reached the highest possible standard of excellence.

It is the aim of this paper to point out briefly some of the improvements that still need attention.

First, Research. Much good has been accomplished by the research work individuals and groups of individuals have been carrying out in a more or less spasmodic manner. The

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