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slides, stereographs and moving pictures serve as teaching devices for visualizing the process. Micromotion films have proved ihemselves particularly adapted to an efficient learning process. The activities to be studied may be repeated at will as oiten as is desired, according to the needs of the learner. An activity may be analyzed into its component parts, and even into the elements of the motion by taking a large number of pictures per second and thus slowing down the process when the film is exhibited at the usual rate of speed. Again, the activities may be analyzed by means of mechanical and other drawings made especially to illustrate one point at a time, with all extraneous subjects omitted. An activity may be summarized, by taking the pictures at a much slower rate of speed than is usual, and then exhibiting them at the usual speed.
Attention may be secured and interest held by “exaggeration" as to scale and by means of the surprise by sudden changes of scale and also by the use of the "close-up." Emphasis may be secured by means of moving cartoons to illustrate a particular point. The sequence of operations may be made impressive by running certain portions and in certain cases, all of the film, backward. Explanations can be included by means of captions inserted in the picture, which may consist of "reasons" and "directions."
Similarity to other activities can be demonstrated by including bits of film showing similar activities in other lines of work. These are only a few of the benefits of the film as a teaching device.
ilotion Study of Coremaking
It may seem a long cry to an increased production of cores from a motion picture film of coremaking, but some day it will be realized that through the discovery and adoption of "the one bost way to do the work," and throug'i that alone can come the increased production, increased wages and increased health and happiness of workers that are essential.
Is for the practicability of the method, in order to cooperate in work for the blinded, we have, during the past year,
through the co-operation of L. W. Wallace, A. B. Segur and others of the Red Cross Institute of the Blind, made records of coremaking. These films show that this process applied to one small division of the work of an industry will standardize the activity involved, make possible its division into parts requiring different capabilities, add a new group of available workers, supply a new element of interest, result in increased production, make possible the payment of higher wages, eliminate unnecessary fatigue, exemplify efficient motions, and do away with a prime cause of inefficiency by supplying an adequate means of discovering, standardizing and transferring skill.
Expense is Not Prohibitive It has sometimes been thought that the expense of this method is so great that it could be afforded only by groups of employers or by an association, but this is not true. It is net expected that this method is ever to be carried so far as to approach a diminishing return, and when it is realized that the ditierence between usual and customary output and the outputs resulting irom this method of research and teaching is issually more than three to one and sometimes five to one, the importance of recording the one best method of doing work and teaching it can be realized.
Comparison of Costs of Electric and
Open-Hearth Furnace Practice
By E. H. BALLARD, West Lynn, Mass.
The advance made during the past few years in practically all branches of manufacturing has been reflected, in a marked degree, in the steel casting industry. Foundry engineers have demonstrated by many remarkable examples, the advance in the foundry art. Without question the necessities of war have done more to stimulate the steel casting industry than any other single cause.
It is a matter of general information that prior to the war many modern foundries were built with the objectionable features of the old time foundry removed, having in mind only such features as spell efficiency and lower the cost of production. Electric steel melting furnaces were installed in a number of foundries. The success following their installation is well known to most foundrymen. Without the electric furnace it is doubtful if the steel casting industry would have been able to contribute such a variety of necessary articles needed in the execution of the war, particularly gun castings, truck wheels and parts, ship castings, anchor chains, etc., all of which presented many difficulties which were overcome by the persistent efforts of the foundrymen called upon to produce them.
The increased number of electric furnaces installed during 1917 and 1918 and their successful operation interested the Lynn works of the General Electric Co. to the extent of inducing the authorities in charge to make a thorough investigation. It is true that a 5-ton electric furnace has been operated successfully for some years at the Schenectady plant and it may appear strange that Lynn foundrymen have been so backward in not making this investigation earlier. The truth of the matter is that for 26 years at the Lynu works the acid open-hearth furnaces have been able to pro
duce practically all classes of castings required, varying from 1 pound to 30 tons, and meeting all specifications physically and chemically.
In order to maintain production from the open-hearth furnaces at reasonable cost, and to keep pace with the labor shortage, many changes have been made by rearranging the entire open-hearth department, installing traveling cranes with lifting magnets, and a mechanically operated charging machine.
Fuel oil economies have been carefully studied, so that under favorable conditions it has been possible to produce a ton of steel with 37 gallons of oil per net ton of melt. These factors have made it possible to produce molten metal in the ladle much cheaper than could be done electrically.
With radical changes in design of much of the product, the engineering department began calling for work difficult, if not impossible, to produce in the open-hearth furnace, particularly where a small quantity of alloy or special carbon steel was required. Producing small heats in a 20-ton openhearth furnace is not economical; neither is it good business to make a full sized heat requiring special mixes, using only a small portion for the particular work desired, and pouring the balance into regular commercial work.
From the investigation made of the electric furnace, it seemed that this process would meet the particular requirements. The latter part of 1918 the installation of a 6-ton basic lined heroult furnace was completed. Regular production was commenced in December, 1918, with an entirely inexperienced organization. The furnace was operated for four months, day shift only, enabling us to secure actual cost data.
The open-hearth department, having been organized for the past 26 years, and made up of many men who had been with the foundry for practically the entire period, it goes without saying that to contrast the operating expense of the old organization of the open-hearth with the new organization of the electric furnace, we should not be too severe in our criticism when analyzing operating costs.
The writer believes, however, foundrymen will agree,
Cost Per crni Jetal charged
Price Per 1.00 Pig Iron
51.00 G. T. 0.46 1.00
51.00 G. T. 0.46 Scrap 20.13 Foundry Accumulations
18.00 G. T. / 1.64 Castings from Scrap Dept.
18.00 G. T. I 3.50 15.63 Scrap 0.06 Unguaranteed.
21.25 G. T. 2.97 0.49 Nickel Turnings
21.50 G. T. 0.09 58.71 Steel Turnings
8.50 G. T. 4.45 0.55 Nickel Accumulations
21.50 G. T. 0.11 0.60 Iron Borings
12.00 G. T. 0.06 97.75
11.18 Special Metals 0.54 Ferrosilicon
155.00 G. T. 0.74 0.37 Ferromanganese
.225.00 G. T. 0.74 0.09 Wash Metal
71.20 G. T. 0.06 0.07 Aluminum Titanium
166.90 G. T. 0.12 0.04 Nickel
0.50 Lb. 0.38 0.06 Copper
20.16 100 lbs. 0.23 0.08 Iron Ore
9.16 G. T. 0.01 1.25
.204.38 G. T. 2.28 100.00 Total Metal Charged.
15.59 G. T. 13.92 Molten Metal Cost Cost of Metals...
13.92 Direct Labor
2.00 Items of Expense-(per detail below)
21.58 100.00 Total Cost of Melt..
37.50 8.00 Shrinkage 92.00 Cost of Metal in Ladle.
40.52 30.90 Credit--Scrap Produced
16.16 N. T. 61.10 linorl Castings Produced
0.0125 KW. 9.05 Oil-Ladle
0.079 Gal. 0.26 Water
0.24 Slagging Material-(Lime, Fluor-, spar, Syndolag, Carbon, Coke)...
1.79 Furnace bottom sand
4.47 N. T. 0.01 Ladle Repairs
0.43 Furnace Repairs
1.27 Royalty (Ave. per net ton output) $0.446
0.27 Depreciation 10 per cent.
1.30 Expense-All other
3.30 Total Melting Expense
Kilowatt-hours per net ton melted. 720 kilowatt.