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in a much better metal, and there are many similar examples that could be mentioned.

A study of steel deoxidizers and particularly an investigation of the use of the alkaline earth metals for that purpose could be undertaken with profit. Then there is the investigation of the deoxidizers for nonferrous alloys, their relative efficiency and function. A research could also be conducted along broad lines on the influence of the rare metals in nonferrous alloys, a field in which our information is very meager. Magnesium and related metals should be studied with reference to their use as deoxidizers for aluminum.

Use of Motion Picture Camera in Research As an indication of the practical importance of working out new methods, we may cite the use of the motion picture camera using the microscope as a lens, by means of which the complete story of minute changes in structures of crystals has been recorded in the case of metal undergoing repeated stresses to the breaking point. The film indicates that failure takes place gradually, beginning the moment the metal is first put under stress, and in future we may be able to tell from the micro-photograph how much of its serviceable life a cable or other metallic miember may have passed. With such apparatus at hand to determine how iron and steel deteriorate or weaken under stress, investigations may be instituted leading to heat treatment to prolong the life of certain alloys and make them less liable to fatigue or to gradual or sudden deterioration. This information would enable us to prolong the life of cables and ropes for elevators and bridges, and to apply this new knowledge in other directions to conserve both life and material.

There are a multiplicity of ways in which data compiled by the Research association could be applied in a practical and profitable manner. Costly metals would doubtless be replaced by less expensive ones equally adapted for special uses. Alloys would be developed for new applications and there would be miscellaneous improvements that are self-evident.

The laboratory of the Alloys Research association will find a tremendous amount of profitable work to do besides conducting research along specific lines. It could do a certain amount of testing as a check on and in co-operation with other laboratories; it could participate very effectively in work looking to the improvement of specifications; it could undertake, perhaps on a semicommercial scale, variations in present-day empirical formulae, which the average manufacturer fears to change. In many cases the laboratory could serve as a final court of arbitration should disputes arise, and for the account of any member of the association could undertake the solution of such problems as might not be of sufficient importance to benefit the entire association. This work could be done at cost. It is reasonable to expect that such a laboratory would become a final training school for men engaged in alloy work, and we might soon find that the better men throughout the industry had at some time or other been engaged in association work, either at the central laboratory or in some one of the co-operating laboratories.

This association will draw its members from, first, firms not now supporting a laboratory; second, firms having a laboratory but unable to devote the requisite time to fundamental research; third, firms similarly placed and working upon some plase of the problem but interested in conducting research in a broader way than the expense would justify in their own establishment; fourth, firms having but a secondary interest in alloy's but nevertheless willing to contribute to the support of the association in order that a properly equipped and staffed laboratory may be at hand to which they may refer an occasional problem of importance to them; and finally, those firms which appreciate the importance of the work and join the association for advanced information not otherwise obtained.

Members of the association, whatever their part in the support of the laboratory, will find the total expense but a fraction of their employers' liability insurance and of their fire insurance. The returns are sure to be many times the expense, and one basic discovery alone would easily pay for the whole undertaking.

A Prime Cause of Inefficiency in

Industrial Organizations

By Frank B. Gilpreth and L. M. GILBRETH, Montclair, N. J.

All traries, and particularly those connected with the foundry industry, are necessarily inefficient today. What are the causes?

There are demands for changes in wages, for better hours, and for increased production. Whether or not the demands are just, they must be answered in some way.

The answer lies in the increase of skill. In the paper presented to this association last year, the authors showed how skill could be discovered, measured, standardized, and transferred, and we brought as illustrations many films that showed in great detail the various stages of the process.

Last year the problem facing the foundry industry was largely one of maximum production. Some phases of the labor problem were not so pressing at that time, because of the patriotism inspired by war necessities. Today the labor problem stands in the foreground of attention. Increase of skill alone can answer the present demands.

It scarcely can be necessary to demonstrate that lack of skill is the prime cause for inefficiency in this country, and in fact, all countries. However, it may not yet be realized that lack of proper teaching is the underlying cause of this lack of skill.

Efficiency in teaching consists primarily of three things: First, determining the best way to do work; second, conveying in least time information of how to do work in the one best way; and third, presenting information so that it can be longest remembered.

The greatest obstacle to overcome in increasing the skill of a group of workers is that they have been taught the average methods by the average teacher. We are all ready to admit this. We are not all, however, as ready to admit that the average teacher has had no opportunity to learn the best method, and is not equipped with modern devices for conveying information. The fault lies ultimately with the industry itself, in not having determined, captured and recorded the one best way, or at least the one best way extant, and put it at the disposal of the teachers.

The first step in this process must consist of recording the best present practice. However, this is not as simple a process as it seems. The records must include many things. Our researches have emphasized several laws, and an idea of these is essential if the existing information on this subject is to be secured, and this must be secured before the one best way can be deduced.

For example, it is a law in motion study efficiency that no two workers are found to use precisely the same motions, even in the same kind of work. This necessitates observing and recording the activities of several, and oftentimes of many workers performing the identical operation. Observant employes note this in their own work.

Demonstrators Have Three Sets of Motions It is a law of motion study efficiency that every demonstrator has been found to have at least three sets of motions and that he does not and cannot use the same motions when he is working with the automaticity of skill at the usual speed that he uses when he demonstrates his method at the slower “demonstration-speed." This necessitates making records of usual and demonstration methods, and also at reduced and increased speeds, in order to note and record the variations.

It is a law of motion study efficiency that the synthesis of the best portions of the methods of two or more of the best workers will be found to present a method that is more efficient than the best method of any one worker. In the films shown, it will be noted that the methods of the workers vary exceedingly, and that some of the so-called “best workers” use some inefficient methods, such as not using the left hand properly.

It is a law of motion study efficiency that the worker

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with the best record of output is not always found to be the best for demonstrating personally the one best way to the learner. His large output may be the result of his superior strenuosity and in spite of a poor method. Furthermore, knowledge of pedagogy does not necessarily accompany knowledge of one's job. It is necessary, therefore, to demonstrate the various methods to the best available teacher, and to record his methods of demonstrating the activities to a learner.

The best way is determined by making records of the usual and demonstration methods of the best workers available, by analyzing them, and combining the best elements of the methods into the one best method and by having this demonstrated by the best available teacher.

Having then secured this record, the actual teaching process consists of using the resulting film as a teacher, supplemented by the usual available teaching methods, oral, written, or whatever they may be. This record of the one best way having once been obtained is available forever. It teaches all newcomers the best way that has been. It will present the information in the best way that the best teacher has ever presented it. This in no way resembles the so-called commercial moving pictures. This information, available forever, is also instantly available. It can easily be brought to the foremen's meeting. It can be duplicated easily and cheaply and put at the disposal of manual training schools and corporation schools.

Compare this with the way trades are heing taught. In 1910 it was said in Motion Study, "The present apprenticeship system is pitiful and criminal from the apprentice's standpoint, ridiculous from a modern system standpoint, and there is no word that describes its wastefulness from an economic standpoint." The great Amar has said the same obtains today in his country. “Our present methods of teaching must be overhauled and research laboratories inaugurated."

Devices for Visualizing Processes Every day that passes serves to emphasize more strongly the correctness of these methods which are based upon teaching through the eye. Written instructions, charts, drawings, lantern

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