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14.-Lesson on effects of heat-melting points of various

substances, etc.
Nature of "burned metal.”
The causes of the formation of gases when metal is

poured into a mold, etc.
Use of acid for pickling castings; action of the acid

in loosening the sand and scale, etc. Safety in the use of grinding wheels for snagging

castings and for other purposes. A man should have some notion of the limits of safety in regard to speed; and the danger of running wheels which are out of balance, or which are mounted in loose bearings. Also the danger of improperly adjusted rests should be made clear.

15.-Practical Metallurgy.

A practical study of the composition and physical prop

erties and characteristics of cast iron. Suggested topics: Different varieties of pig iron-Northern and Southern

Pig-Percentage of scrap which different kinds of

pig will carry.
Proportioning of charges for the production of-

Heavy gray iron castings.
Light gray iron castings.
Hard iron.

Semisteel, etc.
Effect of sulphur, phosphorus, and other elements

present in cast iron.
Effect of rapid cooling upon the hardness-use of

chills-separation of graphitic carbon prevented

by rapid cooling. Compositions of brass-proportions of copper, zinc

and tin for standard alloys—use of deoxidizers for the production of sound castings-phosphor bronze

and other alloys. Aluminum-Melting and casting of aluminum. Production of sound aluminum castings. Use of alumi

num to increase fluidity of iron for thin castings. Alloys of aluminum.

Relation of Foundry Work to Pattern making All patternmakers should have had sufficient foundry experience to enable them to appreciate the problems which the molder has to solve in using patterns to produce perfect castings.

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The patternmaker is the man who usually decides how a piece is to be cast; in other words, before starting in to build a pattern he has to figure out just how the piece will be molded. For example, to properly appreciate the importance of sufficient draft, the patternmaker should have had actual experience in drawing patterns from the sand. The struction of core boxes, loose pieces in core boxes and on patterns, etc., all calls for a background of foundry experience on the part of the patternmaker in order for him to work out all such and many other details so as to facilitate the work of the foundry.

The converse of the preceding statement is not necessarily important, i. e., it is not essential for a first-class foundryman to have had experience as a patternmaker, although for a foundry foreman such experience is desirable.

Whenever the employers of large numbers of workmen wish to plan for the vocational training of their men arrangements should be made for co-operative agreement with the public schools in the community. Teaching, like other professions, is an art that is best accomplished by those who have made it their life business to instruct others.

In every state a state board for vocational education has provided for the promotion of trade and industrial education through the schools of the local community. The agents of the state board are specialists with practical industrial experience and are responsible for giving assistance to the local school officials in planning the types of schools, selecting teachers and equipment, and for seeing that the instruction is effective.

These two agencies, as well as the federal board are willing to co-operate with the representatives of the foundry industry in meeting the need for better trained men.

Personnel Problems in Modern

Industry

By C. D. DYER JR., Philadelphia

In attacking any problem, it is well to know that which we are attempting to attain. In considering the solution of personnel problems, we are fortunate in knowing that the goal for which we are striving is definitely attainable. The solution lies in re-establishing mutual confidence.

That mutual confidence existed in the working relations between owners and employed in many cases, in that earlier day when each knew the other personally, is a matter of record. That the expansion and extension of industry has inserted a factor that makes the solution more difficult, will be conceded, but the fact remains that a revival of this former satisfactory relationship is possible.

In planning a solution, it is well to confine ourselves to terms that permit of definite analysis. For this reason, the "capital" and "labor" terms must be discarded in favor of the more practical conception of "employer" and "employed." Such a division taken as a basis of operation permits of a a concentration not possible under the “capital” and “labor" alignment.

For illustration, assume three workmen employed for equal wages. The first may have diverted his savings to the purchase of securities in the concern by which he is employed, or in other interests, perhaps; the second may have acquired title to a home; while the habits or home demands of the third may have been such that no savings had been effected. The same would be found to be true if the resources of salaried executives were investigated. All devoting brawn, skill or brain constructively whether presidents, managers, skilled workmen, clerks or laborers, could be classed under the term “labor.” They are engaged in producing wealth for the nation, from which all derive

men

as

benefit. Yet any of these may belong to or step into the so-called “capital" class overnight. The large number of Liberty Bond holders illustrates the possibilities of capital development on the part of many heretofore in the noncapital class.

In the employer class will be included those who interpret policies and those who plan and direct work. Under the term "employed" will be classified those who produce by means of their skill and labor, including, of course, all office help.

In that which follows, this definite line of demarcation should be kept in mind, as the solution is predicated on this arbitrary division.

The consummation of satisfactory relations requires hearty co-operation from all concerned. It is not enough that the employer should comprehend the viewpoint of the employed. The latter must with equal candor appreciate and accept the ideals and purposes of the former. No common interest can exist unless it is based upon mutual understanding and respect.

The threc most important factors in securing and maintaining a proper industrial relationship are: First, the establishment of a definite policy, which is not easy; secondly, the proper interpretation of such a policy, which is even more difficult; and thirdly, the practical application of details in connection therewith, which is vital.

Establishing a Definite Policy An adequate and sympathetic comprehension of mutual probiems and mutual needs is a pre-requisite to policy formulation. To be of value, the policy must be formulated with the idea in mind of permanency, rather than expediency. It must provide sufficient elasticity to readily meet local or changing conditions. For the reason that it is essentially a proprietary program, dependent for success upon the co-operative spirit developed, it is only logical that the employed be given every opportunity of taking an active part in its formulation.

It is not only desirable, but essential, that all members of the employer class and a majority of the employed subscribe to its teachings. The four essentials to an effective establish

a

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ment of policy and the securing of the co-operation necessary to its successful functioning will be briefly described.

First-Opportunity must be presented to every member of industry, be he employer or employed, for advancement, financial remuneration, and development as a citizen and community member, according to his contribution to industry and to society at large. Many complications enter into the drafting of a just system of rewards. For this reason, before making a definite departure, an intensive study should be made of every element involved. This system in its final analysis should be based upon a dollar's worth of work. The fact that all have not the same perspective must receive the consideration which it requires. A system of rewards evolved on this basis and developed as the educational campaign that must go with it progresses, may be termed the "Merit System,” but whatever its terminology, it is essential to mutual understanding.

Second-The fact that return investment must be forthcoming and that sufficient capital resources must be available for the development and extension of industry and the weathering of lean periods must be mutually recognized. This principle inay be termed the proprietary factor of safety. It is, of course, directly interlinked with a just system of rewards. Mutual recognition of these inseparable factors is essential to mutual confidence.

Third- The policy must embrace teachings of the principles of Americanism. That the majority of employed must subscribe to a properly established policy, was previously mentioned.

It must be admitted that there are those associated with industry who either cannot, or will not, subscribe to anything constructive. It is fortunate that the latter type is in the minority. Were this not so, the future outlook of American industry would be indeed precarious. Whether this type will be taken care of by the employed depends upon the degree of success that is attained in creating an atmosphere where destructive measures arising out of unsound thinking and disloyalty will not be tolerated by the employed.

The other type, who by reason of lack of earlier ad

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