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tant than two weeks, has much influence upon a workman's output, though it might affect labor turnover and general conditions favorably.

Democracy is Altruistic The moral effect of free discussion after study and lectures on these topics and many others was very marked. Many of the foremen were keenly anxious to know "where the boss stood" and nothing was lost by the utmost frankness on all sides in these private meetings. The "boss" did not always stand where he should and his education was admittedly improved by going to school once more "with the boys."

It was recognized that there are theories before us today for reconstructing society which plan for man solely as a gain-seeking animal. The theory that no man will make any sacrifice for liberty or for love but only for gain is held by the cynics in office, shop and street but it is poor business, for it is not true.

Democracy vigorously denies these assumptions. It banks with confidence on as givers as well as getters and it knows that knowledge touched with emotion is always inventive, ingenious, persistent and victorious. Let us provide this knowledge liberally for the noncommissioned officers of industry-our foremen-and it will soon spread to the ranks.


Training Men for Foundry Work

By C. C. SCHOEN, Stamford, Conn.

During the stress of war, the training and dilution service of the United States department of labor was established for the purpose of recommending and developing efficient shop training methods in factories that would help to eliminate industrial inefficiency, overcome the shortage of labor and stimulate production of mu

It was discovered that many helpful features of organized training as applied to the production of war materials were equally applicable to peacetime industry. Therefore, immediately after the signing of the armistice this service was reorganized under the name of the United States training service to assist all industries, desiring assistance, to establish methods of training their workers within their shops. Among the industries that requested assistance of this service were machine, tool, textile, shoe, rubber, foundry and others.

With the number of available training experts limited, and a due date of June 30 set for the completion of this work, C. T. Clayton, director of the service, realized that only a fraction of those factories seeking help could be accommodated, and therefore delegated to different committees the task of outlining recommendations applicable to the particular industries most urgently requiring and desiring assistance.

The committee on foundry training confined its activities to the following schedule :

1. Confer with foundry organizations, clubs,
owners and managers throughout the country, to ascer-
tain their attitude and opinion.
2. Determine by means of a questionnaire-

Character and extent of training being

carried on at present.
(b) Reasons for present lack of training.
(c) Extent to which training is desired.

A - Number of Foundries Investigated 646
An-Number of Skilled Help Employed =/4462
B-Number of Apprentices permitted in

Agreement of The I. M.U. of N. A.
one Apprentice to Every Five Skilled

Workṁen Plus One to the Foundry= 3528
C - Number of Apprentices

Employed = 31% of "B" 1096
D-Number of Molder

Apprentices 65.4% of c" = 716
E-Number of Core Maker
Apprentices = 28.5%

of "C" = 3/2

F- Number of General Foundry
Apprentices = 6.2% of"C"=


646 Foundries Employing 14462 Skilled Workmen

Apprentice Ratio
I'M. U. of N. A

Total Number of
Apprentices Employed

Molder Apprentices

Core Maker Apprentices

General Foundry


Chart showing relation of general foundry apprentices, molder apprentices and coremaker apprentices, to the number of apprentices permitted in agreement of the I. M. I. of N. A. and to the number of foundries in which the apprentices are employed and to the number of skilled help in these foundries.

3. Outline recommendations for the guid

ance of those instituting foundry train-
ing covering apprenticeship training, up-

grading and training of foremen. The foundry organizations that we conferred with were not only interested and enthusiastic, but appointed committees to co-operate with us. Aside from a small minority (less than 1 per cent) the owners and managers were very enthusiastic and pledged their support. About 1 per cent of the 646 foundries investigated have a definite program and less than 1 per cent give technical instruction. Of the 440 foundries replying on the upgrading question, 65 per cent are active in upgrading their help. The chart shown as Fig. 1 illustrates the extent to which training is carried on at present in foundries located in different parts of the country.

Considering the high turn-over prevalent in foundry apprenticeship, which in some cases has been given as high as 150 per cent, it is evident that the number completing their apprenticeship is very small. In general, the following reasons were given for the present lack of apprenticeship training: 1. Reluctance of young men to engage in foundry

2. Ease with which many young men with limited ex-

perience and knowledge can secure employment as

3. The tendency of foundry employes to discourage

4. Inability of foundry owners to master their train-

ing problems, etc.

Causes of the reluctance of young men to engage in foundry work have been given as low wages, unsanitary conditions, laborious work, monotonous routine, adverse influence of public schools, the four-year apprenticeship clause, lack of any sound, practical, or definite training program, and lack of proper incentives.

The effect of these causes on foundry apprenticeship, as illustrated by the chart, is the low percentage of apprentices entering this work and, as you all know, the result that few of those who enter complete their apprenticeship.

In order to solve the wage problem, a few foundries make a practice of studying the cost of living in their town and granting apprentices' cost of living plus a percentage, ranging from 10 to 70 per cent. The highest percentage is paid to apprentices in their last year of apprenticeship.

A handicap, which many foundries have applied to their apprenticeship systems, is "inertia of habit.” Systems with the

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indentured agreements and rates of pay instituted 15 years ago, are still in use, although perhaps not operating

Working toward the elimination of the effect of low wages, the four-year apprenticeship clause, the institution of proper incentives, etc., a plan is being developed whereby an apprentice's work, length of indentured period and compensation is dependent upon merit and accomplishment rather than time. This involves placing all apprentices on a two months' trial, and those accepted at the end of every six-month period are graded into classes as follows:

Class A, apprentices serving 825 hours per period
Class B, apprentices serving 962 hours per period.
Class C, apprentices serving 1100 hours per period.

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