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SUBCHAPTER B-FEDERAL OPEN MARKET COMMITTEE
Open market operations of Federal Reserve Banks.
272 Rules of procedure.
281 Statements of policy. 282-299 [Reserved]
SUPPLEMENTAL PUBLICATIONS: The Federal Reserve Act, as amended through October 1, 1961, with an Appendix containing provisions of certain other statutes affecting the Federal Reserve System. Rules of Organization and Procedure-Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Regulations of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Published Interpretations of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The Federal Reserve System-Purposes and Functions. Annual Report. Federal Reserve Bulletin. Monthly. Federal Reserve Chart Book on Financial and Business Statistics. Monthly; annual supplement issued in September.
SUBCHAPTER A-BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
Foreword; general principles.
(a) A principal function of the Federal Reserve Banks under the law is to provide credit assistance to member banks, through advances and discounts, in order to accommodate commerce, industry, and agriculture. This function
is administered in the light of the basic objective which underlies all Federal Reserve credit policy, i.e., the advancement of the public interest by contributing to the greatest extent possible to economic stability and growth.
(b) The Federal Reserve System promotes this objective largely by influencing the availability and cost of credit through action affecting the volume and cost of reserves available to the member banks. Through open market operations and through changes in reserve requirements of member banks, the Federal Reserve may release or absorb reserve funds in accordance with the credit and monetary needs of the economy as a whole. An individual member bank may also obtain reserves by borrowing from its Federal Reserve Bank at a discount rate which is raised or lowered from time to time to adjust to the credit and economic situation. The effects of borrowing from the Federal Reserve Banks by individual member banks are not localized, as such borrowing adds to the supply of reserves of the banking system as a whole. Therefore, use of the borrowing facility by member banks has an important bearing on the effectiveness of System credit policy.
(c) Access to the Federal Reserve discount facilities is granted as a privilege of membership in the Federal Reserve System in the light of the following general guiding principles.
(d) Federal Reserve credit is generally extended on a short-term basis to a member bank in order to enable it to adjust its asset position when necessary
because of developments such as a sudden withdrawal of deposits or seasonal requirements for credit beyond those which can reasonably be met by use of the bank's own resources. Federal Reserve credit is also available for longer periods when necessary in order to assist member banks in meeting unusual situations, such as may result from national, regional, or local difficulties or from exceptional circumstances involving only particular member banks. Under ordinary conditions, the continuous use of Federal Reserve credit by a member bank over a considerable period of time is not regarded as appropriate.
(e) In considering a request for credit accommodation, each Federal Reserve Bank gives due regard to the purpose of the credit and to its probable effects upon the maintenance of sound credit conditions, both as to the individual institution and the economy generally. It keeps informed of and takes into account the general character and amount of the loans and investments of the member bank. It considers whether the bank is borrowing principally for the purpose of obtaining a tax advantage or profiting from rate differentials and whether the bank is extending an undue amount of credit for the speculative carrying of or trading in securities, real estate, or commodities, or otherwise.
(f) Applications for Federal Reserve credit accommodation are considered by a Federal Reserve Bank in the light of its best judgment in conformity with the foregoing principles and with the provisions of the Federal Reserve Act and this part.
This part is issued under section 13 and other provisions of the Federal Reserve Act and relates to extensions of credit by Federal Reserve Banks. [Reg. A, 33 F.R. 17231, Nov. 21, 1968]
§ 201.2 Advances to member banks.
(a) Advances on obligations or eligible paper. Reserve Banks may make advances to member banks for not more than 90 days if secured by (1) obligations or other paper eligible under the Federal Reserve Act for discount or purchase by Reserve Banks or (2) certificates of interest issued by the Commodity Credit Corporation in a pool of notes with maturities of not more than 9 months evidencing loans made by the
Corporation pursuant to a commodity loan program.
(c) Advances on other security under section 10 (b) of the Federal Reserve Act. Any Federal Reserve Bank may make advances, under authority of section 10 (b) of the Federal Reserve Act, to any of its member banks upon the latter's promissory note secured to the satisfaction of such Federal Reserve Bank regardless of whether the collateral offered as security conforms to eligibility requirements under other provisions of this part. The rate on advances made under the provisions of this paragraph shall in no event be less than one-half of 1 percent per annum higher than the highest rate applicable to discounts for member banks under the provisions of sections 13 and 13a of the Federal Reserve Act in effect at such Federal Reserve Bank. Such an advance must be evidenced by the promissory note of such member bank payable either (1) on a definite date not more than four months after the date of such advance, or (2) at the option of the holder on or before a definite date not more than four months after the date of such advance.
operating expenses of a commercial, agricultural or industrial business, or for the purpose of carrying or trading in direct obligations of the United States (1. e., bonds, notes, Treasury bills or certificates of indebtedness of the United States);
(2) It must not be a note, draft, or bill of exchange the proceeds of which have been used or are to be used for permanent or fixed investments of any kind, such as land, buildings or machinery, or for any other fixed capital purpose;
(3) It must not be a note, draft, or bill of exchange the proceeds of which have been used or are to be used for transactions of a purely speculative character or issued or drawn for the purpose of carrying or trading in stocks, bonds or other investment securities except direct obligations of the United States (i. e., bonds, notes, Treasury bills or certificates of indebtedness of the United States); and
Even though paper is not eligible for discount by a Federal Reserve Bank for a member bank under the provisions of this part, it may be used as security for an advance by a Federal Reserve Bank to a member bank under the terms and conditions of paragraph (c) of 201.2 if it constitutes security satisfactory to the Federal Reserve Bank.
'As used in this part the word "goods" shall be construed to include goods, wares, merchandise, or agricultural products, including livestock.
(4) It must have a maturity at the time of discount of not exceeding ninety days, exclusive of days of grace, except that agricultural paper as defined in this section may have a maturity of not exceeding nine months, exclusive of days of grace; but this requirement is not applicable with respect to bills of exchange payable at sight or on demand of the kind described in paragraph (b) of this section.
(b) Bills of exchange payable at sight or on demand. Any Federal Reserve Bank may discount for any of its member banks, under authority of section 13 of the Federal Reserve Act negotiable bills of exchange payable at sight or on demand which (1) bear the endorsement of a member bank, (2) grow out of the domestic shipment or the exportation of nonperishable, readily marketable staples, and (3) are secured by bills of lading or other shipping documents conveying or securing title to such staples. All such bills of exchange shall be forwarded promptly for collection, and demand for payment shall be made promptly, unless the drawer instructs that they be held until arrival of such
A readily marketable staple within the meaning of this part means an article of commerce, agriculture, or industry of such uses as to make it the subject of constant dealings in ready markets with such frequent quotations of price as to make (a) the price easily and definitely ascertainable and (b) the staple itself easy to realize upon by sale at any time.
staples at their destination, in which event they must be presented for payment within a reasonable time after notice of such arrival has been received. In no event shall any such bill be held by or for the account of a Federal Reserve Bank for a period in excess of ninety days.
(c) Bankers' acceptances. Any Federal Reserve Bank may discount for any of its member banks a banker's acceptance' which bears the endorsement of a member bank and (1) which grows out of transactions involving the importation or exportation of goods, the shipment of goods within the United States, or the storage of readily marketable staples,' as such transactions are more fully described in § 203.1 (a) (1), (2), and (3), respectively, of this subchapter or (2) which has been drawn by a bank or banker in a foreign country or dependency or insular possession of the
'A banker's acceptance within the meaning of this part is a draft or bill of exchange, whether payable in the United States or abroad and whether payable in dollars or some other money, accepted by a bank or trust company or a firm, person, company, or corporation engaged generally in the business of granting bankers' acceptance credits.
In the case of an acceptance growing out of the storage of readily marketable staples, the bill must be secured at the time of acceptance by a warehouse, terminal, or other similar receipt, conveying security title to such staples, issued by a party independent of the customer or issued by a grain elevator or warehouse company duly bonded and licensed and regularly inspected by State or Federal authorities with whom all receipts for such staples and all transfers thereof are registered and without whose consent no staples may be withdrawn; and the acceptor must remain secured throughout the life of the acceptance. If the goods are withdrawn from storage before maturity of the acceptance or retirement of the credit, a trust receipt or other similar document covering the goods may be substituted in lieu of the original document, provided that such substitution is conditioned upon a reasonably prompt liquidation of the credit; and, to this end, it should be required, when the original document is released, either that the proceeds of the goods will be applied within a specified time toward a liquidation of the acceptance credit or that a new document, similar to the original one, will be resubstituted within a specified time.
United States for the purpose of furnishing dollar exchange as provided in § 203.2 of this subchapter: Provided, That any such acceptance shall have a maturity at the time of discount of not more than ninety days' sight, exclusive of days of grace, except that an acceptance drawn for agricultural purposes and secured at the time of acceptance by warehouse receipts or other such documents conveying or securing title covering readily marketable staples may be discounted with a maturity at the time of discount of not more than six months' sight, exclusive of days of grace: 10 And provided further, That acceptances for any one customer in excess of ten per cent of the capital and surplus of the accepting bank must remain actually secured throughout the life of the acceptance."
The bill itself should be drawn so as to evidence the character of the underlying transaction, but if it is not so drawn evidence of eligibility may consist of a stamp or certificate affixed by the acceptor in form satisfactory to the Federal Reserve Bank.
(d) Construction loans. In addition to paper of the kinds specified above, any Federal Reserve Bank may discount for any of its member banks, under authority of section 24 of the Federal Reserve Act, a negotiable note which (1) represents a loan made to finance the construction of a residential or a farm building whether or not secured by lien upon real estate, (2) is endorsed by such member bank, (3) is accompanied by a valid and binding agreement, entered into by a person 12 acceptable to the discounting
10 No acceptance discounted by a Federal Reserve Bank should have a maturity in excess of the usual or customary period of credit required to finance the underlying transaction or of the period reasonably necessary to finance such transaction; and no acceptance growing out of the storage of readily marketable staples should have a maturity in excess of the time ordinarily necessary to effect a reasonably prompt sale, shipment, or distribution into the process of manufacture or consumption.
11 In the case of the acceptances of member banks this security must consist of shipping documents, warehouse receipts, or other such documents, or some other actual security growing out of the same transaction as the acceptance, such as documentary drafts, trade acceptances, terminal receipts, or trust receipts which have been issued under such circumstances, and which cover goods of such a character, as to insure at all times a continuance of an effective and lawful lien in favor of the accepting bank, other trust receipts not being considered such actual security if they permit the customer to have access to or control over the goods.
12 Such person may be the member bank offering the note for discount or any other individual, partnership, association or corporation.