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BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the tenth day of August, in the fifty-fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, A. D. 1829, Carey, Lea & Carey, of the said district, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit:

"Encyclopædia Americana. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics and Biography, brought down to the present Time; including a copious Collection of Original Articles in American Biography; on the Basis of the seventh Edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon. Edited by Francis Lieber, assisted by E. Wigglesworth."

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, "An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned:" and also to the act, entitled, "An Act supplementary to an act, entitled, 'An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned; and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints."


Clerk of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.


CATHOLIC EPISTLES; a name given to seven epistles of the New Testament, because written to Christians in general, and not to believers of some particular place. They are, one of James, two of Peter, three of John, and one of Jude.

CATHOLICISM. (See Roman Catholic Church.)

CATILINE, Lucius Sergius, was just entering on the age of manhood when Rome became a prey to the rage of Marius and Sylla. Of patrician birth, he attached himself to the cause of the latter, had some share in his success, and still more in his proscriptions. Murder, rapine and conflagration were the first deeds and pleasures of his youth. His influence on the fortunes of the disordered republic became important. He appears to have served in the army with reputation. He was peculiarly dangerous and formidable, as his power of dissimulation enabled him to throw a veil over his vices. Such was his art, that, while he was poisoning the minds of the Roman youth, he gained the friendship and esteem of the severe Catulus. Equally well qualified to deceive the good, to intimidate the weak, and to inspire his own boldness into his depraved associates, he evaded two accusations brought against him by Clodius, for criminal intercourse with a vestal, and for monstrous extortions, of which he had been guilty while proconsul in Africa. He was suspected, also, of having murdered his first wife and his son. A confederacy of many young men of high birth and daring character, who saw no other means of extricating themselves from their enormous debts, than by obtaining the highest offices of the state, having been formed, Catiline was placed at their head. This eminence he owed chiefly

to his connexion with the old soldiers of Sylla, by means of whom he kept in awe the towns near Rome, and even Rome itself. At the same time, he numbered among his adherents not only the worst and lowest of the riotous populace, but also many of the patricians, and men of consular rank. Every thing favored his audacious scheme. Pompey was pursuing the victories which Lucullus had prepared for him; and the latter was but a feeble supporter of the patriots in the senate, who wished him, but in vain, to put himself at their head. Crassus, who had delivered Italy from the gladiators, was now striving, with mad eagerness, after power and riches, and, instead of opposing, countenanced the growing influence of Catiline, as a means of his own aggrandizement. Cæsar, who was laboring to revive the party of Marius, spared Catiline, and, perhaps, even encouraged him. Only two Romans remained determined to uphold their falling country-Cato and Cicero; the latter of whom alone possessed the qualifications necessary for the task. The conspirators were now planning the elevation of Catiline and one of his accomplices to the consulship. When this was effected, they hoped to obtain possession of the public treasures and the property of the citizens, under various pretexts, and especially by means of proscription. It is not probable, however, that Catiline had promised them the liberty of burning and plundering Rome. Cicero had the courage to stand candidate for the consulship, in spite of the impending danger, of the extent of which he was perfectly aware. Neither insults, nor threats, nor even riots and attempts to assassinate him, deterred him from his purpose; and, being supported by the rich citizens, he gained

his election, B. C. 65. All that the party of Catiline could accomplish was the election of Caius Antony, one of their accomplices, as colleague of Cicero. This failure, however, did not deprive Catiline of the hope of gaining the consulship the following year. For this purpose, he redoubled the measures of terror, by which he had laid the foundation of his power. Meanwhile, he had lost some of the most important members of his conspiracy. Antony had been prevailed upon or compelled by Cicero to remain neutral. Cæsar and Crassus had resolved to do the same. Piso had been killed in Spain. Italy, however, was destitute of troops. The veterans of Sylla only waited the signal to take up arms. This signal was now given by Catiline. The centurion Manlius appeared among them, and formed a camp in Etruria. Cicero was on the watch: a fortunate accident disclosed to him the counsels of the conspirators. One of them, Curius, was on intimate terms with a woman of doubtful reputation, Fulvia by name, and had acquainted her with their plans. Through this woman, Cicero learnt that two knights had undertaken to assassinate him at his house. On the day which they had fixed for the execution of their plan, they found the doors barred and guarded. Still Cicero delayed to make public the circumstances of a conspiracy, the progress and resources of which he wished first to ascertain. He contented himself with warning his fellow-citizens, in general terms, of the impending danger. But when the insurrection of Manlius was made known, he procured the passage of the celebrated decree, that "the consuls should take care that the republic received no detriment." It was exceedingly difficult to seize the person of one who had soldiers at his command, both in and out of Rome; still more difficult would it be to prove his guilt before those who were accomplices with him, or, at least, were willing to make use of his plans to serve their own interest. He had to choose between two evils-a revolution within the city, or a civil war: he preferred the latter. Catiline had the boldness to take his seat in the senate, known as he was to be the enemy of the Roman state. Cicero then rose and delivered that bold oration against him, which was the means of saving Rome, by driving Catiline from the city. The conspirators who remained, Lentulus Sura, Cethegus, and other infamous senators, engaged to head the insurrection in Rome

as soon as Catiline appeared at the gates. According to Cicero and Sallust, it was the intention of the conspirators to set the city on fire, and massacre the inhabitants. At any rate, these horrid consequences might have easily followed from the circumstances of the case, without any previous resolution. Lentulus, Cethegus, and the other conspirators, in the meanwhile, were carrying on their criminal plots. They applied to the ambassadors of the Allobroges to transfer the war to the frontiers of Italy itself. These, however, revealed the plot, and their disclosures led to others still more important. The correspondence of the conspirators with their leader was intercepted. The senate had now a notorious crime to punish. As the circumstances of the case did not allow of a minute observance of forms in the proceedings against the conspirators, the laws relating thereto were disregarded, as had been done in former instances of less pressing danger. Cæsar spoke against immediate execution, but Cicero and Cato prevailed. Five of the conspirators were put to death. Caius Antonius was then appointed to march against Catiline, but, on the pretext of ill health, gave the command to his lieutenant Petreius. He succeeded in enclosing Catiline, who, seeing no way of escape, resolved to die sword in hand. His followers imitated his example. The battle was fought with bitter desperation. The insurgents all felf on the spot which their leader had assigned them, and Catiline at their head, at Pistoia, in Etruria, 5th Jan., B. C. 62. The history of Catiline's conspiracy has been written by Sallust.

CATINAT, Nicholas, marshal of France, born at Paris, 1637, quitted the profession of the law for that of arms, after losing a cause by a decision which appeared to him evidently unjust. He entered the cavalry, attracted the notice of Louis XIV, at the storming of Lille (1667), and was promoted. By a number of splendid deeds, he gained the esteem and friendship of the great Condé, particularly by his conduct at the battle of' Senef. He was sent as lieutenant-general against the duke of Savoy, gained the battles of Staffardo (Aug. 18, 1690) and of Marsaglia (Oct. 4, 1693), occupied Savoy and part of Piedmont, and was made marshal in 1693. In the conquered countries, his humanity and mildness often led him to spare the vanquished, contrary to the express commands of Louvois. In Flanders, he displayed the same activity, and took Ath, in 1697. In 1701, he received

the command of the army of Italy against prince Eugene; but he was straitened by the orders of his court, and was destitute of money and provisions, while Eugene was allowed to act with full liberty. July 6th, he was defeated at Carpi. Equally unfortunate was the battle of Chiari, where Villeroi had the chief command. It was here, while rallying his troops, after an unsuccessful charge, that he replied to an officer who represented to him that death was inevitable in such an encounter, "True, death is before us, but shame behind." In spite of his representations, the French court would not believe the disasters in Savoy to be owing to the perfidy of the duke of Savoy, and Catinat was disgraced. He bore his misfortune with calmness, and died at St. Gratien, in 1712. He was a true philosopher, religious without austerity, a courtier without intrigue, disinterested and generous when in favor, and cheerful in disgrace. From his unalterable calmness and consideration, his soldiers called him le Père de la Pensée.

CATO the Censor (Marcus Porcius), surnamed Priscus, also Sapiens and Major (the Wise and the Elder), born 232 B. C., at Tusculum, inherited from his father, a plebeian, a small estate, in the territory of the Sabines, which he cultivated with his own hands. He was a youth at the time of Hannibal's invasion of Italy. He served his first campaign, at the age of 17, under Fabius Maximus, when he besieged Capua. Five years after, he fought under the same commander at the siege of Tarentum. After the capture of this city, he became acquainted with the Pythagorean Nearchus, who initiated him into the sublime doctrines of his philosophy, with which, in practice, he was already conversant. After the war was ended, Cato returned to his farm. As he was versed in the laws, and a fluent speaker, he went, at day-break, to the neighboring towns, where he acted as counsellor and advocate to those who applied to him. Valerius Flaccus, a noble and powerful Roman, who had an estate in the vicinity, observed the talents and virtues of the youth, conceived an affection for him, and persuaded him to remove to Rome, where he promised to assist him with his influence and patronage. A few rich and high-born families then stood at the head of the republic. Cato was poor and unknown, but his eloquence, which some compared to that of Demosthenes, and the integrity and strength of his character, soon drew the public attention to

him. In court, and in the popular assemblies, he answered to the fine definition which he himself gave of an orator, and which Quinctilian has preserved to us; "a virtuous man skilled in the art of speaking well." At the age of 30, he went as military tribune to Sicily. In the following year, he was questor, at which period there commenced, between him and Scipio, a rivalry and hatred, which lasted till death. Cato, who had returned to Rome, accused Scipio of extravagance; and, though his rival was acquitted of the charge, this zeal in the cause of the public gained Cato a great influence over the people. Five years after, having been already edile, he was chosen pretor, and obtained the province of Sardinia. His strict moderation, integrity and love of justice were here still more strongly displayed than in Rome. On this island, he formed an acquaintance with the poet Ennius, of whom he learnt Greek, and whom he took with him to Rome on his return. He was finally made consul, 193 B. C., with his friend Valerius Flaccus for his colleague. He opposed, with all his power, the abolition of the Oppian law, passed in the pressing times of the second Punic war, forbidding the Roman women to wear more than half an ounce of gold, to dress in garments of various colors, or to wear other ornaments; but he was obliged to yield to the eloquence of the tribune Valerius, and the urgent importunities of the women. Soon after, he set out for Spain, which was in a state of rebellion. His first act was to send back to Rome the supplies which had been provided for the army, declaring that the war ought to support the soldiers. He gained several victories with a newlyraised army, reduced the province to submission, and returned to Italy, where the honor of a triumph was granted to him. Scarcely had he descended from his triumphal car, when he put off the toga of the consul, arrayed himself in the soldier's habit, and followed Sempronius to Thrace. He afterwards put himself under the command of the consul Manius Acilius, to fight against Antiochus, and to carry on the war in Thessaly. By a bold march, he made himself master of the Callidromus, one of the highest peaks of the mountain pass of Thermopyla, and thus decided the issue of the battle. He brought the intelligence of this victory to Rome, 189 B. C. Seven years after, he obtained, in spite of a powerful faction opposed to him, the most honorable, and at the same time the most feared, of all

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