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Heating apparatus and plumbers' supplies—Continued.

Oil burners, domestic and industrial.

Power boilers and associated products..

Steam and hot-water heating apparatus (including

hot-water furnaces) -

Stoves, ranges, water heaters, and hot-air furnaces

(except electric).

Steam fittings, regardless of material -

Heating and cooking apparatus, except electric, not

elsewhere classified.--

Metal stamping, enameling, galvanizing, japanning, and

lacquering:

Vitreous enameled products, including kitchen,

household, and hospital utensils

Automobile stampings...

Stamped and pressed metal products (except automo-

bile stampings)

Enameling, japanning, and lacquering-

Galvanizing and other coating-carried on in plants

not operated in connection with rolling mills.

Fabricated structural steel and ornamental metal work:

Fabricated structural steel and ornamental metal

work, made in plants not operated in connection

with rolling mills.

Doors, window sash, frames, molding, and trim

(made of metal) -

Miscellaneous iron and steel products:

Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets—made in plants not

operated in connection with rolling mills---

Forgings, iron and steel-made in plants not operated

in connection with rolling mills

Wrought pipes, welded and heavy riveted-made in

plants not operated in connection with rolling

mills

Springs, steel (except wire)-made in plants not

operated in connection with rolling mills.--

Screw-machine products and wood screws.

Steel barrels, kegs, and drums.

Firearms.

Safes and vaults.

Cold-rolled steel sheets and strip and cold-finished

steel bars made in plants not operated in connec-

tion with hot-rolling mills..

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Group 17.-MACHINERY (EXCEPT ELECTRICAL)-Con.

Engines and turbines:

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Steam engines, turbines, and water wheels.

408

Internal-combustion engines --

411

Agricultural machinery and tractors:

Tractors.---

415

Agricultural machinery (except tractors).

418

Construction, mining, and related machinery:

Construction and similar machinery (except mining

and oil-field machinery and tools) --

422

Oil-field machinery and tools.--

426

Mining machinery and equipment...

429

Metalworking machinery:

Machine tools...

431

Machine-tool and other metalworking-machinery ac-

cessories, metal-cutting and shaping tools, and

machinists' precision tools --

435

Metalworking machinery and equipment, not else-

where classified...

439

Special industry machinery:

Food-products machinery

443

Textile machinery ---

447

Woodworking machinery ..

450

Paper-mill, pulp-mill, and paper-products machinery 453

Printing-trades machinery and equipment.---

456

Special industry machinery, not elsewhere classified.. 460

General industrial machinery:

Measuring and dispensing pumps.-

463

Pumping equipment and air compressors.

465

Elevators, escalators, and conveyors.-

470

Cars and trucks, industrial.

Blowers; exhaust and ventilating fans ----

477

Measuring instruments, mechanical (except electrical

measuring instruments, watches, and clocks) -- 480

Mechanical power-transmission equipment.--

483

Stokers, mechanical, domestic and industrial..

486

Industrial machinery, not elsewhere classified !

489

Machine-shop products, not elsewhere classified)

Machine-shop repairs.

497

Office and store machines:

Office and store machines not elsewhere classified... 501

Vending, amusement, and other coin-operated ma-

chines...

504

Scales and balances..

507

Household and service-industry machines: :

Laundry equipment, domestic----

510

Commercial laundry, dry-cleaning, and pressing

machinery ----

513

Sewing machines, domestic and industrial.

515

Refrigerators, domestic (mechanical and absorption),

refrigeration machinery and equipment, and com-

plete air-conditioning units.--

518

Group 16.-ELECTRICAL MACHINERY

388
392

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Group 20.—MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES—Con.

Surgical, medical, and dental instruments, equipment,

and supplies:

Surgical and medical instruments..

Surgical supplies and equipment not elsewhere

classified; orthopedic appliances..

Dental equipment and supplies -

Musical instruments and parts

Pianos

Organs

Piano and organ parts and materials

Musical instruments, parts, and materials not else-

where classified

Toys and sporting and athletic goods:

Games and toys (except dolls and children's vehicles)

Dolls, except rubber

Children's vehicles

Sporting and athletic goods not elsewhere classified..

Pens, pencils, stencils, and artists' materials:

Pens, mechanical pencils, and pen points.-

Pencils (except mechanical) and crayons.

Hand stamps, stencils, and brands.-

Artists' materials.---

Carbon paper and inked ribbons..

Buttons.-

Costume jewelry and miscellaneous products:

Costume jewelry and costume novelties (jewelry other

than fine jewelry)-----

Jewelry cases and instrument cases-

Lamp shades...

Feathers, plumes, and artificial flowers..

Miscellaneous industries, not elsewhere classified:

Brooms.

Brushes...

Beauty-shop and barber-shop equipment.

Furs, dressed and dyed.----

Signs, advertising displays, and advertising novelties -

Fabricated plastic products, not elsewhere classified.

Umbrellas, parasols, and canes.

Tobacco pipes and cigarette holders.--

Soda fountains, beer dispensing equipment, and re-

lated products.---

Models and patterns (except paper patterns).

Hair work..

Wool pulling-

Needles, pins, hooks and eyes, and slide and snap

fasteners.

Fire extinguishers, chemical.

Miscellaneous fabricated products not elsewhere clas-

sified...

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GENERAL EXPLANATIONS

The final reports for the 1939 Census of Manufactures, and in Alaska by employees of the United States which were published in pamphlet form (multilithed or Forest Service, of the Department of Agriculture. printed), have been assembled in three bound volumes, Forest Service employees also reviewed the production as follows:

data collected from the same classes of establishments Volume I. General Report-Statistics by Sub

in eight Eastern States. Through a cooperative agreejects.

ment with the Agricultural Marketing Service, of the Volume II. Part 1, Reports by Industries

Department of Agriculture, the census returns for Groups 1 to 10.

establishments producing butter, cheese, condensed and Part 2, Reports by Industries

evaporated milk, and ice cream in the State of WisGroups 11 to 20.

consin were collected and reviewed by the Madison Volume III. States and Outlying Areas.

office of that Department in conjunction with its

annual canvass of dairy products. The Census of Manufactures covering the year 1939

All such cooperation by other Federal departments was the twenty-third such census taken in the United

is handled by employees who are also sworn employees States. It was also the tenth of a series taken at 2-year of the Bureau of the Census. It is believed that this

. 2 intervals, beginning with 1921. The first census of

type of cooperation is of benefit to all the agencies manufactures covered the year 1809, and a census at participating, and that it results in greatly enhancing 10-year intervals in connection with the Decennial

the value of the statistics. Census of Population was taken thereafter up to and

3. Establishments covered—type.—The censuses are including 1899, with the exception of 1829, at which confined, in general, to manufacturing industries proper. time no census of manufactures was taken. From

Data were collected for a few industries, however, the 1904 through 1919, the census of manufactures was activities of which are not manufacturing in the sense taken at 5-year intervals, after which the biennial series

in which the term is generally understood, the most was begun. The 1921 census and all subsequent cen

important example being printing and publishing. suses have been taken under authority contained in

The following classes of establishments are not covered section 32 of the Fourteenth Census Act, and later in

by the Census of Manufactures: section 17 of the Fifteenth Census Act. The Sixteenth

(a) Those that were idle throughout the year or that manuDecennial Census, of which the 1939 Census of Manu

factured during the year products which were valued at less factures is a part, was also taken under the Fifteenth

than $5,000 (see sec. 4, below). Census Act.

(6) Those engaged principally in the performance of work for 1. Area and period covered. The 1939 Census of individual customers, such as repair shops, custom tailor shops Manufactures covered the 48 States and the District of

manufacturing products valued at less than $100,000 within the

census year, and dressmaking and millinery shops (but this does Columbia, and manufacturing activities in Alaska,

not apply to large establishments manufacturing to fill special Hawaii, and Puerto Rico were canvassed with simplified orders). questionnaires. The census of Hawaii and Puerto Rico (c) Those engaged in the construction industries. related to manufacturing operations in the calendar

(d) Those engaged in the so-called neighborhood industries

and hand trades, in which little or no power machinery is used, year 1939, and that for Alaska covered the year from

such as carpentry, blacksmithing, harnessmaking, tinsmithing, October 1, 1938, to September 30, 1939.

etc. 2. The canvass.—The canvass for the 1939 Census of

(e) Cotton ginneries. Manufactures began on January 2, 1940, and was (f) Small grain mills (gristmills) engaged exclusively in custom practically completed by the end of June, although grinding, some manufacturers failed to make their returns until

(g) Wholesale and retail stores that incidentally manufacture

on a small scale. some time later. The questionnaires were distributed

(h) Educational, eleemosynary, and penal institutions engaged and the returns collected by field enumerators, of whom

in manufacturing. (Data for the production of binder twine in approximately 6,400 were employed in the censuses of penal institutions and of brooms in institutions for the blind Manufactures, Business, and Mines and Quarries.

were, however, collected.) Logging camps and sawmills and manufacturing

(i) Establishments engaged in the manufacture of heating,

cooking, and illuminating gas, distributed through mains. plants, such as planing mills, operated in conjunction

(1) Electric and steam railroad repair shops. with them, were canvassed in the 12 Western States

(k) Electric light and power plants operated as public utilities.

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4. Establishments covered-minimum size limit.- ard Industrial Classification established by the Division At the biennial censuses, with certain exceptions of Statistical Standards, of the Bureau of the Budget explained in the following paragraph, data have been (formerly the Central Statistical Board). collected only from establishments reporting products 7. Industry groups.—To facilitate the comparison of to the value of $5,000 or more.

one broad class of manufacturing industries with anIn order to reduce the cost of the work and to facili- other, the industries as constituted for census purposes tate the preparation of the statistics, no data (except are distributed into groups each embracing those indusin regard to wage earners and products, for 1921, and tries that are related, in most cases by the character of in regard to products only for certain industries, for the principal materials used, although several of the 1923 and 1925) were collected from establishments groups are constituted on the basis of the purpose or with products valued at less than $5,000. At the use of the chief products, and one, “Chemicals and quinquennial censuses, however, data on all subjects allied products,” on that of the character of the manu

” covered by the census were obtained from all establish- facturing processes employed. It is necessary, of ments with products valued at $500 or more. This

course, in some cases to include in a particular group change in the minimum value-of-products limit, which certain industries that use considerable quantities of resulted in a 21.6 percent reduction in the number of materials or manufacture considerable quantities of establishments in regard to which general and detailed products other than those treated as basic for the group. statistics were compiled at the census for 1921, did not For example, the “Furniture and finished lumber prodotherwise materially impair the comparableness of the ucts” group, in which wood is the basic material, inbiennial and quinquennial figures, since 99.4 percent cludes industries that use considerable quantities of of the total wage earners and 99.7 percent of the total metal in the manufacture of furniture, shelving, etc. value of products reported at that census were con- At the censuses for 1921 and prior years, the classifitributed by the establishments reporting products to cation comprised 14 groups. At the census for 1923 the the value of $5,000 or more.

industries were rearranged into 16 groups, which were 5. Definition of establishment.-As a rule, the term retained until the census for 1939, when a further "establishment” signifies a single plant or factory. rearrangement into 20 groups was made, as follows: : Occasionally, however, separate returns are obtained

Group No. for different lines of activity, assigned to different 1. Food and kindred products. industry classifications, carried on in the same plant,

2. Tobacco manufactures. in which case a single plant is counted as two or more

3. Textile-mill products and other fiber manufactures.

4. Apparel and other finished products made from fabrics establishments. In censuses prior to that for 1937

and similar materials. one return was usually counted as representing one 5. Lumber and timber basic products. establishment, although it might cover two or more 6. Furniture and finished lumber products. plants operated under the same management and

7. Paper and allied products. located in the same city, or in the same county but in

8. Printing, publishing, and allied industries.

9. Chemicals and allied products. different municipalities or unincorporated places having

10. Products of petroleum and coal. fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. For 1937 and 1939,

11. Rubber products. however, the number of establishments represented by a 12. Leather and leather products. return was determined by the respondent's answer to 13. Stone, clay, and glass products. the question "How many plants does this report

14. Iron and steel and their products, except machinery.

15. Nonferrous metals and their products. cover?The total number of establishments was

16. Electrical machinery. increased approximately 2,000 by this change in prac- 17. Machinery (except electrical). tice, but the change did not materially affect the number 18. Automobiles and automobile equipment. of establishments in any specific industry.

19. Transportation equipment except automobiles. 6. Classification of industries.- Although there are

20. Miscellaneous industries. thousands of more or less distinct lines of manufactur- 8. Classification of establishments. Each establishing activity, for practical purposes, not only to bring ment as a whole (a single plant being counted as two the number of industries within reasonable compass but or more establishments in certain cases, as explained also in order to group together related processes and in sec. 5), is assigned, on the basis of its product or products, it has been necessary to establish a definite group of products of chief value, to some one industry number of industry classifications. For the 1937 cen- classification. sus, 351 separate classifications were recognized; for The statistics as to cost of materials, value of prod1939, the number was increased to 446. The expansion ucts, and value added by manufacture for any particular was based on prevailing conditions in the actual organi- industry relate not only to the primary products zation of industry, and the new classifications were de- normally belonging to that industry but also to certain veloped in collaboration with the Committee on Stand secondary products which normally belong to other

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