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Verbum Sapienti (attached to it).

CHAP. IX.

Motives to the quiet bearing of extraordinary

Taxes. • Having showed how great and glorious things may be done with no less difficulty, than what onefourth of the King's subjects do already endure; I offer these farther reasons to quiet men's minds, in case this utmost 250,000l. per mensem should be ever demanded upon this Holland war.

*1. That of all naval expense, not one-twentieth is for foreign commodities; nor need it be one-fortieth, if the people would do their part, and the governors direct them the nearest ways.

• 2. That stoppage of trade is considerable, but as one to eight; for we exchange not above five millions worth per ann. for our forty.

* 3. That the expense of the King, &c. being about 400,0001. per ann., is but one-hundredth part of the expense of the nation, who all have the pleasure and honour of it.

4. That the money of the nation being but about five millions and a half, and the earning of the same twenty-five, it is not difficult for them to increase their money a million per ann. by an easy advance of their industry, applied to such manufactures as will fetch money from abroad.

• 5. The wealth of England lies in land and people, so as they may make five parts of six of the whole; but the wealth of Holland lies more in money, housing, shipping, and wares. Now supposing England three

times as rich as Holland in land and people (as it is) and Holland twice as rich as we in other particulars ; (as it scarce is) we are still, upon the balance of the whole, nearly twice as rich as they: of which I wish those, that understand Holland, would consider and calculate.

• 6. There are in England above four acres of arable, meadow, and pasture land, for every soul in it; and those so fertile, as that the labour of one man in tilling them is sufficient to get a bare livelihood for above ten : so as it is for want of discipline, that any poverty appears in England, and that any are hanged or starved upon that account.

« CHAP. X.

How to employ the People, and the End thereof.

• We said, that half the people by a very gentle labour might much enrich the kingdom, and advance it's honour, by setting apart largely for public uses : but the difficulty is, upon what shall they employ themselves ?

• To which I answer in general, upon producing food and necessaries for the whole people of the land by few hands; whether by labouring harder, or by introducing the compendium and facilitations of art, which is equivalent to what men vainly hoped from polygamy. Forasmuch as he, that can do the work of five men by one, effects the same as the begetting of four adult workmen. Nor is such advantage worth fewer years' purchase than that of lands, or what we esteem likest to perpetual, Now the making necessaries cheap, by the means aforesaid, and not by raising more of them than can be spent whilst they are good, will necessitate others to buy them with much labour of other kinds. For if one man could raise corn enough for the whole better than any one man, then that man would have the natural monopoly of corn, and could exact more labour for it in exchange, than if ten others raised ten times as much corn as is necessary; which would make other labour so much the dearer, as men were less under the need of engaging upon it.

2. By this way we might recover our lost clothtrade, which by the same the Dutch got from us. By this way the East Indians furnish us, from the other end of the world, with linen cheaper than ourselves can make them with what grows at our own doors. By this means we might fetch flax from France, and yet furnish them with linen (that is) if we make no more than we can vend, but so much with the fewest hands and cheapest food, which will be also when food is raised by fewer hands than elsewhere.

• 3. I answer, generally, we should employ ourselves by raising such commodities, as would yield and fetch in money from abroad; for that would supply any wants of ours from the same, or any other place at all times : which stores of domestic commodities could not effect, whose value is to call a temporary (i. e.) which are of value but pro hic et nunc.

• 4. But · When should we rest from this great industry?' I answer, when we have certainly more money than any of our neighbour-states (though never so little) both in arithmetical and geometrical proportion, i. e., when we have more years' provision aforehand, and more present effects.

65. What then shall we busy ourselves about?' I

answer, in ratiocinations upon the works and will of God, to be supported not only by the indolency but also by the pleasure of the body, and not only by the tranquillity but serenity of the mind: and this exercise is the natural end of man in this world, and that which best disposeth him for his spiritual happiness in that other which is to come. The motions of the mind, being the quickest of all others, afford most variety, wherein is the very form and being of pleasure: and by how much the more we have of this pleasure, by so much the more we are capable of it even ad infinitum.'

297

GEORGE VILLIERS, THE YOUNGER,

SECOND DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM OF THAT NAME.*

[1627–1688.]

THIS accomplished courtier, at once the ornament and the disgrace, the envy and the ridicule of his contemporaries, was the son and heir of the unfortunate statesman, the first Duke of Buckingham of the name, whose Life has already been recorded in these volumes. He was born at Wallingford House in Westminster, in 1627, and was little more than sixteen months old at the assassination of his father, “ from whom (says Fairfax) he inherited the greatest title, as he did from his mother † the greatest estate, of any subject in England; and from them both so graceful a body, as gave lustre to the ornaments of his mind.” He was educated for some years, under the direction of his mother, by private tutors at home, and at a proper age sent with his brother Lord Fran

* AUTHORITIES. Wood's Athena Oxonienses, Fairfax's Memoirs of the Life of G. Villiers, 1758; Burnet's History of his Own Times, and Biographia Britannica.

+ Lady Catharine Manners, sole daughter and heiress of Fran. cis Earl of Rutland, through whom Helmsley passed from the male line of the Manners' family. The present Duke of Rutland is Baron Roos of Hamlake, or Helmsley.

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