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* If our author will not allow the cases to be altogether equal, I think he will find no other difference, than that the consuls and archons were regularly made by the votes of the consenting people, and orderly resigned their power, when the time was expired for which it was given. Whereas Tarquin, Dionysius, Agathocles, Nabis, Phalaris, Cæsar, and almost all his successors, whom he takes for complete monarchs, came in by violence, fraud, and corruption, by the help of the worst men, by the slaughter of the best, and most commonly (when the method was once established) by that of their predecessors, who, if our author say true, were · fathers of their country! This was the root and foundation of the only government, that deserves praise. This is that which stamped the divine character upon Agathocles, Dionysius, and Cæsar, and that had bestowed the same upon Manlius, Marius, or Catiline, if they had gained the monarchies they affected. But I suppose that such as God has blessed with better judgement, and a due regard to justice and truth, will say that all those, who have attained to such greatness, as destroys all manner of good in the places where they have set up themselves by the most detestable villainies, came in by a “ back-door;" and that such magistrates, as were orderly chosen by a willing people, were the true shepherds, who came in by the gate of the sheepfold, and might justly be called the ministers of God, so long as they performed their duty in providing for the good of the nations committed to their charge.”





JAMES BUTLER, the seventh Earl and first Duke of Ormond, was born in 1610, and at the age of three years was carried over to Ireland. His father Viscount Thurles, being drowned in 1619, in his passage to England, he returned with his mother (Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Poyntz) from Ireland, and in the following year resided for a short time with a Popish schoolmaster; who educated him in the errors of the Romish Church, till he was placed by King James, as a ward of the crown, in the house of Archbishop Abbot: his Majesty, though he had at that time seized upon his grandfather's estate, granting him only 40%. per. ann. for the support of himself and his servant, and making the Primate no allowance for his maintenance or education.

* AUTHORITIES. Rapin's History of England, Salmon's Chronological Historian, Leland's History of Ireland, Clarendon's History of the Great Rebellion, and Biographia Britan, nica.

By Abbot he is said to have been first instructed in the principles of Protestantism, to which he adhered till his death.

At sixteen, he quitted Lambeth for the roof of his grandfather, who with his liberty had recovered a considerable part of his property; and, being no longer confined to his former penurious allowance, he en gaged in the ordinary amusements of his age. Among these, he was more particularly delighted with the performances of the theatre; so that several of the eminent players had the honour of his acquaintance. In his diversions, however, he did not lose a due regard to the reparation of his fortune; for the estate of his relation Lord Preston, which had been violently rent from the House of Ormond, having devolved to an heiress, he married her in 1630, and thus terminated the family-feud.

About two years afterward by his grandfather's death he became Earl of Ormond, and being naturally of an enterprising character (under the countenance of the Earl of Strafford, then Lord Deputy of Ireland) immediately engaged in public affairs. This countenance originated in a very singular occurrence. Animosities in the Irish parliament had risen so high, that it was feared their debates would terminate in blood; upon which Strafford published a Proclamation, forbidding any man to sit in either House with his sword. These weapons, therefore, were delivered by them on entering to the Usher of the Black Rod, who stood ready to receive them. The Earl of Ormond, however, refused to surrender his; and when the Usher, with some rudeness, enforced his demand, replied, “If he had it, it should be in his body.' Upon this, the Deputy inquired the reason of

his disobedience; and received in answer the writ, by which he was summoned, as Earl of Ormond, to sit in parliament girded with a sword. Henceforward, his Excellency held him in particular esteem; and on returning to England, recommended him to the Privy Council as one likely to prove an able servant of the Crown.

In 1640, when it was deemed necessary to raise troops in Ireland, the care of making the levies, and ascertaining their maintenance from the parliamentary funds, was reposed in the Earl of Ormond. This army was to have rendezvoused at Carrickfergus, and thence to have been transported to Scotland; but the pacification, which soon afterward ensued, superseded the execution of the design.

In 1641 broke out the Irish rebellion, an insurrection rendered memorable by the cruelty, which for many years desolated that unhappy country. It's most furious leader was Sir Phelim O'Neil, who opened the horrid scene by seizing the castle of Charlemont, a very important fort upon the Pass of Blackwater.

The perfidy, with which he transacted this part of his scheme, was a natural prelude to his subsequent barbarities. He sent word to Lord Charlemont, the governor, that he would that day be his guest;' and an entertainment was accordingly provided, to which (as was not uncommon in those times) great numbers resorted, as to a general festival. His Lordship had one company of soldiers in his garrison; but they not suspecting danger, and being fully disposed to participate in the general merriment, laid aside their arms and mingled with the company. The table was spread, and all was feasting and jollity till

toward evening; when Sir Phelim, finding his accomplices entered and every danger of resistance removed, seized Lord Charlemont and his family, while his followers murthered or secured the soldiers, and took possession of the castle.

On the same day, many other chieftains raised their septs, and, endeavoured with various success to take possession of the towns in their neighbourhood. They now grew rapidly stronger, as they were absolute masters of the open country, and had therefore sufficient means to secure the aid of the needy peasantry. The whole district of Cavan was reduced by Philip O'Reily, and seven others by other leaders, in the first week; and Sir Phelim O'Neil had collected, within the same short interval, a body of nearly thirty thousand men: a sufficient proof of the intention of the Irish to rebel. But is it not, likewise, a sufficient proof that they had received proportional provocation; and that the English had forgotten the courtesy, with which disputed titles ought ever to be enjoyed ?

The followers of O'Neil had, obviously, soon learnt to take pleasure in blood: and so much had he heightened their ferocity, that if they happened to have no prisoners to destroy, they would amuse themselves with seizing the cattle for the mere purposes of torture; cutting off the legs of sheep or oxen, and leaving them to expire in lingering agonies. This savage tendency their leader encouraged by his own example; always breaking out, whenever he was accidentally discomposed, in some horrible and useless act of cruelty. At one time, he ordered his noble prisoner Lord Charlemont to be shot; at another, he massacred great numbers, to whom he had himself

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