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al Control exerted by biotic agents is effective and substantial in at least part of the geographic distribution of the pest species, if not throughout the range of the pest.
Mr. WHITTEN. You also state that not one documented example of the use of biological control as a component in an integrated nematode management system exists. Are you referring just to the U.S. or is this worldwide, and why do you feel this is true?
Dr. BERTRAND. This appears to be true on a worldwide basis with the possible exception of research within the U.S.S.R. A paper presented at a recent International Congress indicated that work of this nature may be in progress within the Soviet Union. It is felt that emphasis by the U.S.S.R. on the integrated pest management approach is ahead of the rest of the world. The reason nematodes are not controlled biologically is because effective chemicals—nematocides—are available that provide adequate control. This, plus the lack of visibility of these organisms within the soil, has resulted in little public interest and a very limited interest on the part of the scientific community. With the recent withdrawal of several chemical nematocides from the market, there has been more interest in the utilization of biotic agents such as fungi and other nematodes for biological control purposes. It should be noted that there has been considerable effort to develop nematode-resistant varieties of plants as part of the overall ongoing control technology.
Mr. WHITTEN. You are requesting an increase of $1,200,000 for research in support of APHIS plant and pest control programs. One of the problems you refer to is that of a poisonous weed called alfombrilla. What exactly is this weed, where in the world is it grown, and what would happen to the U.S. cattle industry if it got into the U.S.?
Dr. BERTRAND. Alfombrilla is a small perennial weed about 10 inches tall which is highly poisonous to animals. It is native to north central Mexico. Cattle, sheep, and goats are killed by alfombrilla when they eat as little as 6 ounces per day for three days. Alfombrilla is a devastating poisonous plant to cattle in the Mexican State of Chihuahua. It is spreading north there and is now immediately south of the U.S.-Mexico border. The U.S. cattle industry would be devastated by this poisonous weed if it enters the U.S. and becomes widely distributed on western U.S. rangelands.
APHIS MEDFLY PROGRAM
Mr. WHITTEN. In this same area of research you make the statement that additional funds will be used to improve mass production and release of sexually sterile Mediterranean fruit flies. The Medfly rearing o is an APHIS program. How do you work in support of this program, and how do you plan to use your resources in this area?
Dr. BERTRAND. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service together with its several cooperators is engaged in a battle against the Mediterranean fruit fly on two fronts; one in Mexico and Central America and one in the State of California. Among the tools used to combat this insect is the rearing and release of massive numbers of sterilized insects with the objective of overwhelming and eradicating the pest population. It is the responsibility of the Science and Education Administration to provide,
through research, the very best technology available relative to the rearing and release of sterile flies. Our resources will be dedicated to the establishment of protocols for efficient and dependable mass production and use of sterile Mediterranean fruit flies. Research efforts will be concentrated in the areas of automated rearing technology, definition and testing of diets, efficient sexing procedures, safe handling and shipping techniques, minimum effective sterilizing methods, and effective field release systems.
DETECTION OF AGRICULTURAL CONTRABAND Mr. WHITTEN. You are requesting an increase of $3,290,000 for plant protection and quarantine research in support of APHIS/ FSQS/FDA programs. Part of these funds will be used to continue work on the development of sensitive instrumentation to detect agricultural contraband in passengers' luggage entering the United States. What type of instrumentation do you hope to develop?
Dr. BERTRAND. Currently our research is directed to studying the feasibility of three different types of instrumentation. The most promising at this time are detectors that sense aromas and other volatile materials that typically emanate from each of the many types of contraband plant and animal materials. We are currently cataloging these materials and studying potential detectors that will adequately discriminate between these and other materials commonly carried in luggage such as toiletry and perfumes.
The most sensitive and most discriminating instrumentation for detection of odors is based upon a multiple mass spectrometer, but currently available instruments are not rugged and are expensive. We hope to use the principles of mass spectrometry to adapt a device which is small, rugged, and usable by non-scientists and reasonably priced.
Another device which is somewhat less discriminating and sensitive than mass spectrometry, but potentially very useful, is based upon infrared absorbance spectrometry. It uses the Fourier-transform technique which makes it rapid and sensitive. It can be used to detect the volatile components, associated with odors, from foodstuffs. The device could be readily miniaturized and computer operated. It could be priced much less than a mass spectrometer, is rugged and easy to operate.
Another device which might be used is based upon the piezoelectric effect. Piezoelectric or pressure sensitive crystals with inherent frequencies such as the quartz crystal in a watch can have their frequencies modified if chemicals are absorbed on their surfaces. We can easily observe the change in frequency. Devices based on this principle could be used to detect volatile components of food. Although such devices are cheap, they currently lack sensitivity, discriminating power, and take considerable time to recover.
Other detection methods being investigated employ X-ray and microwave energy. These methods yield images which are learning to resolve automatically into images.
Mr. WHITTEN. What successes have you had in this area to date? Give us some examples, please.
Dr. BERTRAND. We hope to have the feasibility phase of the study completed by the end of this fiscal year and plan to move directly to development of the instrumentation system.
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We have demonstrated that we can detect citrus fruit, passion fruit, mangoes, bananas, various sausages, and deer horns.
Mr. WHITTEN. In connection with the IR-4 program you are proposing an increase of $200,000 for fiscal year 1982. How do you propose to use this increase?
Dr. BERTRAND. These funds will be used to strengthen our pesticide residue analytical capabilities. There now exists a backlog of 600 potential researchable food uses in the IR-4 system which increase by about 200 needs each year. We can currently develop data for about 150 uses annually, and this increase should provide for an estimated 25 percent increase over our present capacity.
Mr. WHITTEN. How did you use the increase that Congress provided for fiscal year 1981?
Dr. BERTRAND. The funds that were provided by Congress for the IR-4 program in fiscal year 1981 were earmarked for use by SEA, Cooperative Research, in the P.L. 89-106 Special Grants Program. The funds were distributed to the Leader Laboratories to strengthen support for development of analytical pesticide residue data and to the IR-4 Headquarters Office at New Brunswick, New Jersey. The funds are being utilized at the Leader Laboratories to maintain and/or update laboratory instrumentation used in pesticide residue analysis and to provide additional support for up to 11 satellite laboratories that cooperate with the IR-4 program.
Mr. WHITTEN. If Congress were to make available funds over and above your request for IR-4 work, give us some examples of where you would devote your work. What would be the highest priority areas over and above those you plan to undertake yourself?
Dr. BERTRAND. These funds would be used to initiate a new thrust with emphasis on the development of safety and environmental data for specialty chemicals and pathogens for use in integrated pest management programs. Some progress by industry is currently being made in the registration of specialty chemicals and pathogens. However, many of these materials have been in a developmental research phase in federal and state programs since 1970. Companies have not shown interest in most of these materials because of the increased registration requirements and increased costs for development. For instance, sex pheromones and other sex attractants have now been identified for at least 601 insect species. However, only five sex pheromones are currently registered for control of insect pests in the U.S. The IR-4 program can play a unique role in furthering the development registration, and commercial availability of these specialty chemicals and pathogens by assisting in the development of safety and environmental data which will further stimulate industry to register and market these materials.
Mr. WHITTEN. What is the proposed budget for the National Arboretum for fiscal year 1981 and fiscal year 1982?
Dr. BERTRAND. The proposed budget for fiscal year 1981 is $1,957,800 and fiscal year 1982 is $2,320,000.
Mr. WHITTEN. Have any major changes been made at the Arboretum during fiscal year 1980 and 1981, and what do you plan for the future?
Dr. BERTRAND. A major change in fiscal year 1980 was the construction of a National Herb Garden, of which the cost was shared equally between USDA and private funds.
The future plans include construction of a new research-education complex on a "brickyard” site. The current cost of this planned endeavor is estimated at $10 to $12 million, to be shared by USDA and private funds.
Mr. WHITTEN. You are requesting an increase of $400,000 for improving security at the Arboretum, and you refer to the fact that there has been significant increase in crimes against persons and property there. Please discuss with the Committee some of the problems you have been encountering at the Arboretum
Dr. BERTRAND. In a 10 month period from August 1, 1979, to May 31, 1980, the Arboretum suffered losses from vandalism estimated at $50,303. One house was burned down, two restrooms wrecked, windows broken, typewriters stolen, and fences cut. More importantly, crimes against visitors have increased, largely because of the numerous escape routes through breaches in the fence along M Street.
Mr. WHITTEN. How much of the $400,000 will be for improving the perimeter fence and how much will be for improved security?
Dr. BERTRAND. $224,000 will be expended for new fencing of the most critical areas and roughly $176,000 will be expended for contracting of full-time security guards.
Mr. WHITTEN. What assistance do you receive from the D.C. Police and other federal security agencies with respect to providing security for the Arboretum?
Dr. BERTRAND. The District of Columbia Police, because of the proximity of the 5th District Headquarters, does provide a presence in the Arboretum through regular patrols, but only should be considered as a "visible” deterrent from time to time. Since contract guards do not have the power of arrest, we look to the D.C. Police to finalize the arrest process in cases where our guards have apprehended a suspect. They have also aided in searching for suspects on the grounds at the Arboretum. No other security force, other than SEA contract guards and the D.C. Police, provides assistance on the Arboretum grounds.
Mr. WHITTEN. According to page 170 of the notes you are requesting an increase of $1,500,000 for AgRISTARS. The AgRISTARS project was started as a satellite information system for developing intelligence on crop estimates both in the U.S. and overseas. However, the research work you propose for fiscal year 1982 in connection with AgRISTARS is in a totally different area. Does this mean that the program is being redirected, and why do you feel that such a redirection is necessary?
Dr. BERTRAND. While the major emphasis of the AgRISTARSAgriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing-research program has been on detection of stress in agricultural systems and better commodity production estimates,
and programom Surveis