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(Moore, C. K., Amos, H. E., Lowery, R. S., Evans, J. J. and Burdick, D. 1979. Influence of Glucose Addition and Formaldehyde Treatment of Forage Diets on Nitrogen Metabolism and Fiber Digestion in Wethers. J. Anim. Sci. 48:354.) (Supplement 1, Abstract).
Participating Federal and State research organizations require the completion of CRIS forms AD-416 (Research Resume) and AD-417 (Research Classification) as an integral part of their work unit approval process. As soon as the work unit is approved, completed CRIS forms are forwarded to the CRIS office for input into the computer data base. Updating, which includes new work units, revisions, corrections and terminations, is conducted on a regular weekly basis throughout the year. Annual progress and publication reports are forwarded to CRIS generally on a fiscal year basis for USDA agencies or a calendar year basis in the case of state organizations for input during the year. Purging of aged work units is conducted annually. Work units are retained on the master file for at least two years following termination.
TIS PARTICIPATION IN AGRIS Mr. WHITTEN. On page 22 of the ADP Notes you state, “TIS must participate in AGRIS.” Why?
Dr. BERTRAND. The development of the International Information System for the Agricultural Sciences and Technology-AGRISarose from recommendations made in 1970 to the Director-General of FAQ by a panel of experts. These recommendations recognized the need to create a single rapid current awareness service with worldwide coverage with FAO acting as the coordinating agency. AGRINDEX, the current awareness service became operational in January 1975, and now appears monthly in printed form and on magnetic tape. Approximately 50 percent of the citations are for U.S. research literature. These citations are a by-product of the TIS system that produces the AGRICOLA data base. FAO strips out of magnetic tape the U.S. citations, at no cost to TIS, and publishes them primarily for use by the developing countries. This kind of "publication” has caused a modest increase in the use of TIS journals. The Administrator of TIS is a member of the Panel of Experts at FAO. All participation in this program has been cleared with the USDA representative at FAO. If FAO were denied the U.S. citations the program might be discontinued. The term "must" was used to show a long-term commitment to the international exchange of agricultural information; however, there is no legal mandate that requires TIS to participate in AGRIS.
Mr. WHITTEN. Mr. Traxler?
Worldwide to create auf expertis made in
EFFECT OF EXTENSION INCREASES Mr. TRAXLER. Dr. Greenwood, you certainly have to be the most happy individual in this room today. When you went to sleep with great fears and apprehension, you woke up the next morning $11 million richer. Not many administrators in this town have that feeling.
Dr. GREENWOOD. My colleagues and I are very appreciative.
What is that going to mean in the operation of the various extension programs? What do you think will occur with that additional funding?
Dr. GREENWOOD. It will assist the state extension services in maintaining their current level of program delivery.
Mr. TRAXLER. To maintain current services?
Dr. GREENWOOD. I am sure on a state-by-state basis there will be a continuing look at priorities and perhaps some redirection of efforts. But the total effort expended will remain stable.
Mr. TRAXLER. What do you see as the future of Extension in the next three to five years?
Dr. GREENWOOD. As we assess future opportunities and direction, we will unquestionably be functioning in a changing environment and amidst changing conditions. I think, too, that as we reflect on our enviable past and identify ingredients fundamental to our accomplishments certain partnerships surface. We have said on many occasions that this unique partnership between federal, state, and local governments is vital to the “investor” sharing of both funding and program determination. I believe that, in the future, it will be incumbent on Extension to preserve the concept of the shared responsibility for both funding and programs; remain cognizant of those broadly based national issues that Congress surfaces as having special significance, especially energy, conservation of natural resources, agricultural productivity, and coping with inflation; and finally assure that we remain in good stewards of the responsibility and expectations of those units of government that make Extension possible and that provide for continuing its heritage that dates back to 1914.
EFNEP PROGRAM Mr. TRAXLER. You have had some increases proposed in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program. I am sure that these increases will be important ones for you. With the proposals to reduce support for feeding programs like Food Stamps, Child Nutrition, Women, Infants and Children, and the Commodity Supplemental Feeding Program, do you expect to see the demand for EFNEP services increasing?
Dr. GREENWOOD. The cost of food in an inflationary time is obviously a major concern for many low-income families. EFNEP program aides are equipped with information to enable families to use limited resources and make wiser decisions about food buying, preparation, purchase and storing procedures. All learning experiences in the EFNEP program are tailored to the needs, interests, economics, ethnic background and educational levels of the individual homemakers who participate in the program.
We anticipate that EFNEP program aides will find an increased demand for the information they can provide families.
Mr. TRAXLER. In the past, you have been doing some food stamp outreach work. There are those who now criticize efforts to advise people of their eligibility for food stamps. Do you see the EFNEP activity with respect to food stamp outreach changing in the coming year?
Dr. GREENWOOD. EFNEP paraprofessionals teach low-income homemakers to provide an adequate diet for their families within limited resources. The 1977 Food Stamp Act encouraged EFNEP to increase efforts to provide nutrition education to food stamp participants. Sixteen pilot EFNEP/Food Stamp projects were funded in fiscal year 1980 to test alternative informational strategies and educational methods. Based on the results of fiscal 1980 projects, fiscal year 1981 appropriations will be used for further testing of
Co Dr. GREEN WO provide an adod Stamp Action to food stamunded
promising cost-effective methods to provide nutrition education to more low-income families.
An objective of the EFNEP program is to increase the ability of low-income families to manage potential food resources including federal assistance programs such as Food Stamps. A change in Food Stamp eligibility criteria will necessitate that EFNEP pro gram aides be able to inform program families of changes in the Food Stamp program. SEA-Extension envisions continued close cooperation at the federal, state and local level with the Food Stamp program to ensure that all food resources are utilized wisely. The primary thrust of the EFNEP program continues to be to help lowincome families, especially those with young children, to acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to improve their diets.
Mr. TRAXLER. Have you used Extension resources, and EFNEP in particular, to help small rural communities establish their own feeding programs like WIC or CSFP? Do you believe that this would be a valid use of Extension resources? I know that nutrition education is a valuable factor, but it does little good if people do not have sufficient food to eat.
Dr. GREENWOOD. A major focus of Extension programs and materials has been upon meeting the educational needs at the local level in a nonformal setting. As needs for such education are identified in local communities, expertise from land-grant colleges and other sources is used to provide relevant educational programs. A recent state project requests funds to adapt agricultural cooperative programs and teaching materials to food and other consumer cooperatives. These materials could potentially be utilized by community resource development and family living specialists to provide education to people in small rural communities who wish to establish their own feeding programs.
IMPACT OF HIRING FREEZE
Mr. TRAXLER. Can you tell me if the recent hiring freeze has resulted in difficulties either for Extension in Washington or at the local level? I know we had several people retire recently in Michigan, and many county agents are being called upon to do more work as a result of decreased personnel.
Dr. GREENWOOD. The hiring freeze has had an impact on the staffing of SEA-Extension here in Washington. It has not, however, impacted the states nor their local offices. I might add, however, that reduced funding levels in many of the states, due to their own budgetary constraints, tend to exacerbate the problem that we all face. State Directors and Administrators have advised me that they face budgetary restrictions more severe than at any time in the past. This places increased emphasis on the importance of the three partners in shared funding and program determination maintaining their relative commitment to the partnership. The budget under consideration will assist in maintaining the federal commitment to the partnership.
Mr. TRAXLER. Are there any Extension functions that are either exempted from the freeze, or any functions that you believe should be exempted from the freeze?
Dr. GREENwood. SEA-Extension is currently professionally staffed at approximately 75 percent of its ceiling—that ceiling established before the freeze took effect. We believe, of course, that full staffing would result in increased opportunity to respond to the needs of the states. On the other hand, we are cognizant of our responsibility to be the best stewards we can of available resources. We have not, to date, filed exemption requests.
Mr. TRAXLER. Dr. Greenwood, why are we again facing an elimination of farm safety programs? Haven't we restored it enough times, or is that why you could afford to cut it?
Dr. GREENwood. The SEA management team recognizes that on many occasions the farm safety program has been identified as a reduction in the budget request and that the Congress has restored it. In developing the budget request, your interest in this program was recognized; however, considering the constraints placed upon SEA management and in constructing our priorities of total national needs based upon these constraints, we could not place farm safety high enough on the priority list to be included in the asking. At the same time, we recognize that the states have the option of continuing the program with their formula funds, which we would expect approximately one-half of them to do.
THE RENEWABLE RESOURCES EXTENSION ACT OF 1978
Mr. TRAXLER. Last year we discussed the renewable resources program, and the interest in providing funds for it. Did you attempt to obtain funds for this program for fiscal 1982? Is the program still a needed one?
Dr. GREENwood. The Department requested funding in fiscal year 1981 and fiscal year 1982 but funds have never been included in the executive budget because of other higher program priorities. Program funding would help put into place an Extension education delivery system to teach how to manage natural resources that would be similar to the programs which have been so successful in agriculture. For example, if the timber products from these private forestlands became a reality, our Nation could become a net timber exporting nation. At the same time, with improved management, these forest and rangelands could be producing greater quantities of other renewable resources, such as wildlife, fish, recreation, and forage for livestock.
Also the Renewable Resources Extension Act is very closely tied with the Resources Planning Act of the Forest Service and Soil and Water Resource Conservation Act of the Soil Conservation Service. The Extension education component would improve the technical assistance and service programs of these agencies, as is mandated in the legislation.
Funding this program would be desirable if budget constraints were lessened. However, our first priority must be adequate increases in the Smith-Lever formula funds. The Nation is now relying upon the renewable resources within our own boundaries; i.e., wood, as an energy source, could supply about 10 percent of the Nation's energy needs on a continuing basis. Domestic livestock utilizing rangelands need much less in energy input as compared to confined cattle.
Mr. TRAxleR. We again see proposals to eliminate funding for the Bankhead-Jones program, and I understand that the justification is once again based upon the non-agricultural use of funds by the recipient institutions. Last year Dr. Folks in response to one of my questions seemed to be saying that you were operating with our directive to be sure that these funds were being used for agricultural purposes. What happened? Did you just not follow through on the practice explained to us last year, or did you find that it was too hard to police the expenditure of these funds? Dr. GREEN wood. We were not deficient in following through with the actions outlined for you that required us to distribute the $11.5 million appropriation in accord with the existing statutes, and to inform the states about the House directive that required them to use the funds for agricultural education, to the maximum extent possible. Legally, these are the only actions available to us because of the broad provisions contained under section 22 of the Bankhead-Jones Act, and this particular section would have to be amended in order to enforce the House directive. You may be pleased to know that our latest survey of these funds conducted by our Financial Management Division indicated that around 60 percent of these funds were targeted for agricultural purposes in fiscal year 1980. Also, we reiterated the House directive to the states when we released the fiscal year 1981 grant allocations some months ago. Mr. TRAXLER. One of my county extension agents is a dynamite administrator. She whips those county commissioners around and tells them why she has to have good funding for those programs. Then she has a good network operation with the farmers and their wives. They come down and talk with county commissioners. They really get their attention. From my observations you have been a very fine administrator and you have been a strong advocate of the cause of a true champion. Those of us on this Committee always appreciate that. We perhaps are a little too thin-skinned on occasion. But you have been a fighter. You have maintained the quality of excellence in service within the Department in spite of decreasing real dollars in which to do that with. It has been tough. We understand that. We will try to help you. It has been good to have you before us today.
NATIONAL SEA PLAN
Dr. Bertrand, you recently sent to me and other members of this subcommittee a copy of “A Comprehensive National Plan for New Initiatives in Home Economics Research, Extension and Higher Education.” Can you summarize the findings of that report for us?
Dr. BERTRAND. A vital national concern is for families to care for their members, promote individual growth and development, and meet their needs for food, clothing and housing; also to produce and manage resources essential for health, safety, and well-being.
The proposed new national initiatives in Research, Extension, and Higher Education are to help families handle major problems